Hindu festivals

The ancient lunar Hindu calendar is the basis of all Hindu festivals. Nepal's official calendar Bikram Sambat (B.S.), which is a solar calendar, is a modified version of the ancient Hindu calendar.

Since both AD and BS are solar calendar, dates of Hindu festivals are fluctuating (mostly up to +- 20 days) with reference to B.S. or A.D. Year 2014 & 2015 AD are used in this post for reference.

Baisakh 1st: (2014 Apr 14), first day of Bikram Sambat (B.S.)
Baishakh Krishna Ekadashi, Baruthini Ekadashi (वरूथिनी एकादशी) (Apr 25, 2014)
Baisakh Aushi (बैशाख औंशी): Mata Tirtha Aunshi, Mother's day, No moon day (Apr 29, 2014) 🌑
Baishakh Shukla Tritiya, Akshya Tritiya (अक्षय तृतीया) (2014 May 2)
Baishakh Shukla Ekadashi, Mohini Ekadashi (मोहिनी एकादशी) (2014 May 10)
Baisakh Purnima (बैशाख पूर्णिमा): Buddha Jayanti (बुद्ध जयंती) (2014 May 14) 🌕

Jestha Krishna Ekadashi, Apara Ekadashi (अपरा एकादशी) (2014 May 24)
Jestha Aunshi (जेष्ठ औंशी): (May 28, 2014)  🌑
Jestha Shukla Ekadashi, Nirjala Ekadashi (निर्जला एकादशी) (2014 June 9)
Jestha Purnima (जेष्ठ पुर्णिमा), Bata Sabitri (वट सावित्री)(2014 Jun 12) 🌕

Ashadh Krishna Ekadashi , Yogini Ekadashi (योगिनी एकादशी) (2014 Jun 23)
Snandaan Aunshi (औंशी) (2014 Jun 27) 🌑
Dahi Chura Khane Din (2014 Jun 29) [15th of Ashad B.S.]
Ashad Shukla Ekadashi, Harishayani Ekadashi (हरिशयनी एकादशी)  (July 8, 2014)
Ashadh Purnima , Guru Purnima (गुरू पूर्णिमा), Teachers day, Vyas day, (July 12, 2014)  🌕

Saune Sankranti (साउने संक्रान्ति), Luto Falne din, [1st day of Shrawan B.S.] (July 17, 2014)
Shrawan Krishna Ekadashi, Kamika Ekadashi (कामिका एकादशी) (July 22, 2014)
Shrawan Aunshi (श्रावन औंशी), New Moon (July 26, 2014) 🌑
Shrawan Shukla Panchami, Naag Panchami (नाग पंचमी) (Aug 1, 2014)
Shrawan Shukla Ekadashi, Putrada Ekadashi (पुत्रदा एकादशी) (Aug 7, 2014)
Shrawan Purnima (श्रावन पुर्णिमा), Janai Purnima (जनै पुर्णिमा), Rakshya Bandhan (Aug 10, 2014) 🌕

Bhadra Krishna Asthami, Sri Krishna Janma Asthami (Aug 17, 2014)
Bhadra Krishna Ekadashi, Aja Ekadashi (अजा एकादशी) (Aug 21, 2014)
Kushe Aunshi (कुशे औंशी), ** Somvati Amabasya (सोमवती अमावस्या) (Aug 25, 2014) 🌑
Bhadra Shukla Tritiya, Haritalika Teej (हरितालिका तीज) (Aug 28, 2014)
Bhadra Shulka Chaturthi, Ganesh Chaturthi (गणेश चतुर्थी) (Aug 29, 2014)
Bhadra Shukla Panchami, Rishi Panchami (ऋषि पन्चमी) (Aug 30, 2014)
Bhadra Shukla Ekadashi, Paribartini Ekadashi (परिवर्तिनी एकादशी) (Sep 5, 2014)
Bhadra Shukla Chaturdashi, Indrajatra (इन्द्रजात्रा), Anant Chaturdashi (अनंत चतुर्दशी) (Sep 8, 2014)
Bhadra Purnima (पुर्णिमा), starting day of Shora Shradda (सोह्र श्राध्द) (Sep 9, 2014) 🌕

Ashwin Krishna Ekadashi, Indira Ekasadhi (इंदिरा एकादशी) (Sep 19, 2014)
Ashwin Aunshi (आश्विन औंशी), New Moon, Shora Shradda end. (Sep 24, 2014) 🌑
Aswin Shukla Pratipada (प्रतिपदा), Ghatasthapana (घटस्थापना), first day of dashain (Sep 25, 2014)
Aswin Shukla Saptami, Fulpati (फूलपाती) (Oct 1, 2014)
Aswin Shukla Asthami, Maha-Asthami (महा अष्ठमी) (Oct 2, 2014)
Aswin Shukla Nawami, Maha-Nawami (महा नवमी) (Oct 3, 2014)
Aswin Shukla Dashami, Bijaya-Dashami (बिजया दशमी) (Oct 4, 2014)
Aswin Shukla Ekadashi, Papankush Ekadashi (पापांकुश एकादशी) (Oct 4, 2014)
Ashwin Purnima (आश्विन पुर्णिमा), Kojagrat Purnima (कोजाग्रत पुर्णिमा) (Oct 7, 2014) 🌕

Kartik Krishna Ekadashi, Rama Ekadashi (रमा एकादशी) (Oct 19, 2014)
Kartik Krishna Trayodashi, Kaag Tihar (काग तिहार) (Oct 21, 2014)
Kartik Krishna Chaturdashi, Kukur Tihar (कुकुर तिहार) (Oct 22, 2014)
Kartik Aunshi (कार्तिक औंशी), Laxmi Puja (लक्ष्मी पूजा) (Oct 23, 2014) 🌑
Kartik Shukla Pratipada, Gobardhan Puja (गोबर्धन पूजा) (Oct 24, 2014)
Kartik Shukla Dwitiya, Bhai Tika (भाई टिका) (Oct 25, 2014)
Kartik Shukla Shasthi, Chhath Parwa (2014 Oct 29)
Kartik Shukla Ekadashi, Haribodhini (हरिबोधिनी एकादशी) / Prabodhini (प्रबोधिनी) (Nov 3, 2014)
Kartik Purnima (कार्तिक पुर्णिमा), Tripurari purnima (त्रिपुरारी पुर्णिमा) (Nov 6, 2014) 🌕

Mangsir Krishna Ekadashi, Utpatika/Utpanna (उत्पतिका/उत्पन्ना एकादशी) (Nov 18, 2014)
Mangsir Aunshi (मङ्सिर औंशी) (Nov 22, 2014) 🌑
Mangsir Shukla Panchami, Bibah Panchami (बिबाह पन्चमी) (Nov 27, 2014)
Marga Shukla Ekadashi, Mokshada Ekadashi (मोक्षदा एकादशी) (Dec 2, 2014)
Mangsir Purnima (मङ्सिर पुर्णिमा), Udhauli Festival (उधौली पर्ब) (Dec 6, 2014) 🌕

Poush Krishna Ekadashi, Safala Ekadashi (सफला एकादशी) (Dec 18, 2014)
Poush Aunshi (पौष औंशी), ** Somvati Amavasya (सोमवती अमावस्या) (Dec 22, 2014) 🌑
Poush Shukla Ekadashi, Putrada Ekadashi (पुत्रदा एकादशी) (Jan 1, 2015)
Paush Purnima (पौष पुर्णिमा), Sakambari Jayanti (शकम्बरी जयन्ति) (Jan 5, 2015) 🌕

Maghe / Makar Sankranti (मकर संक्रान्ति) [1st day of Magh B.S.] (2015 Jan 15)
Magh Krishna Ekadashi, Sattila Ekadashi (षटतिला एकादशी) (2015 Jan 16)
Magh Aunshi (माघ औंशी) **Mouni Amavasya (मौनी अमावस्या) (2015 Jan 20)  🌑
Magh Panchami, Basanta Panchami, Saraswati Puja (2015 Jan 25)
Magh Shukla Ekadashi, Bhima Ekasadhi (भीमा एकादशी), Jaya Ekasadhi (जया एकादशी) (Jan 30, 2015)
Magh Purnima (माघ पुर्णिमा) (Feb 3, 2015) 🌕

Fagun Krishna Ekadashi, Bijaya Ekasadhi (विजया एकादशी) (Feb 15, 2015)
Fagun Krishna Trayodashi, Maha-Shivaratri (महा शिवरात्रि) (Feb 17, 2015)
Falgun Aunshi (फाल्गुन औंशी), New Moon (Feb 18, 2015) 🌑
Falgun Shukla Ashthami, Chirotham Asthami (Feb 26, 2015)
Falgun Shukla Ekadashi, Aamlaki Ekadashi (आमलकी एकादशी) (Mar 1, 2015)
Falgun Purnima (फाल्गुन पुर्णिमा), Holi (होली) (Mar 5, 2015) 🌕

Chaita Krishna Ekadashi, Paapmochini (पापमोचिनी एकादशी) (Mar 16, 2015)
Chaita Aunshi (चैत्र औंशी), Ghode-Jatra (घोडे जात्रा) (Mar 20, 2015) 🌑
Chaitra Shukla Pratipada, Beginning of Indian Hindu Calendar (March 21, 2015)
Chaitra Shukla Asthami, Chaite Dashain (2015 Mar 27)
Chaitra Shukla Nawami, Ram-Nawami (राम नवमी) (Mar 28, 2015)
Chaitra Shukla Ekadashi, Kamada Ekadashi (कामदा एकादशी) (Mar 31, 2015)
Chaitra Purnima (चैत्र पुर्णिमा), Hanuman Jayanti (हनुमान जयन्ति)(Apr 4, 2015) 🌕

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** Malamaas (मलमास): occurs when there are 26 fort nights in a year instead of 24. Duration of these 2 extra fortnights are called Malamass and considered impure. Malamaas happens once in every 32 months ie. about 3 years. It is adjusting Lunar calendar in accordance to Solar calendar.

Padmini Ekasadhi (पद्मिनी एकादशी) ** Malamaas (मलमास) (Jun 28, 2015)
Parma Ekasadhi (परमा एकादशी) ** Malamaas (मलमास) (July 12, 2015)

** Somvati Amabasya (सोमवती अमावस्या) : Aushi (औंशी) that falls in Monday (सोमबार).
** Mouni Amavasya (मौनी अमावस्या) : Aushi (औंशी) that falls in month of Magh (माघ).

List of All Purnima (Full Moon)
  1. Baisakh Purnima (बैशाख पूर्णिमा) is also celebrated as Buddha Jayanti (बुद्ध जयंती). This is the day when Gautam Buddha was born and also died. 
  2. Jestha Purnima (जेष्ठ पुर्णिमा) is celebrated as Bata Sabitri (वट सावित्री). Somethimes its also celebrated in the day of Jestha Aunshi (जेष्ठ औंशी). Womens take brata (fasting) on the day. The main objective of the celebration is to acquire good fortune and to be a ritualistic good Hindu women. 
  3. Ashadh Purnima (आषाढ़ पूर्णिमा) is celebrated as Guru Purnima (गुरू पूर्णिमा) or the Teachers day. This day is also the birthday of Maharishi Vyas.
  4. Shrawan Purnima (श्रावन पुर्णिमा) is celebrated as Rakshya Bandhan (रक्षाबंधन) or Rakhee (राखी) and Janai Purnima (जनै पुर्णिमा).
  5. Bhadra Purnima (भाद्र  पुर्णिमा) is celebrated as the starting day of Shora Shradda (सोह्र श्राध्द) which end in following Aunshi (औंशी / new moon) day. The following 15 days after this is Dashain (दशैं) period.
  6. Ashwin Purnima (आश्विन पुर्णिमा) is celebrated as Kojagrat Purnima (कोजाग्रत पुर्णिमा). This is the last day of Dashian (दशैं).
  7. Kartik Purnima (कार्तिक पुर्णिमा) is celebrated as Tripurari purnima (त्रिपुरारी पुर्णिमा)   because Lord Shiva had destroyed the devil Tripurashur (त्रिपुरासुर) in this day.
  8. Mangsir Purnima (मङ्सिर पुर्णिमा) is celebrated as Udhauli Festival (उधौली पर्ब ) by Kirat (किराँत) community. The popular Sakela (सकेला) dance is performed during the festival.
  9. Paush Purnima (पौष पुर्णिमा) is celebrated taking a Holy Dip in the river. This day is also celebrated as Sakambari Jayanti (शकम्बरी जयन्ति).
  10. Magh Purnima (माघ पुर्णिमा) is celebrated taking a Holy Dip in the river.
  11. Falgun Purnima (फाल्गुन पुर्णिमा) is celebrated as Holi (होली) / festival of colors.
  12. Chaitra Purnima (चैत्र पुर्णिमा) is celebrated as celebrated as Hanuman Jayanti (हनुमान जयन्ति / birth day of Hanuman).


List of Aushi/ Amavashya (No Moon)

Krishna Pakshya and Sukla Pakshya are two fortnights of Hindu calendar. End of Sukla Pakshya is known as Purnima (full moon) and after that the moon starts fading out. The day when the moon fully disappears is known as Aaushi or Amavsya. 
  1. Baisakh : (May 6, 2016) Mata-tirtha aaushi, Mother's day in Nepal (Baisakh 24, 2073 BS)
  2. Jeth : (June 5, 2016) Vata-Sabitri (वट सावित्री) is observed by some people in Aushi
  3. Ashadh : (Jul 4, 2016 Mon) Somvati Amabsya
  4. Saaun : (Aug 2, 2016) 
  5. Bhadau :  (Sep 1, 2016) Gokarna Aausi, Father's day in Nepal, Pitri Tarpani Aaushi
  6. Ashwin : (Sep 30, 2016)   
  7. Kartik : (Oct 30, 2016) Lakshmi Puja (3rd day of Tihar)
  8. Mangsir : (Nov 29, 2016)
  9. Paush : (Dec 29, 2016) 
  10. Magha : (Jan 27, 2017) Mauni Amavasya (last aushi before Mahashivaratri)
  11. Falgun : (Feb 26, 2017) Darsha Amavasya , Surya Grahan
  12. Chaitra : (Mar 28, 2017) 
** Somvati Amabasya (सोमवती अमावस्या) : Aushi (औंशी) that falls in Monday (सोमबार).
** Shani Amabasya : Aushi that falls in Saturday.
** Mouni Amavasya (मौनी अमावस्या) : Aushi (औंशी) that falls in month of Magh (माघ).

List of Ekadashis

Two fortnights of month are called Krishna Pakshya (कृष्ण पक्ष) and Shukla Pakshya (शुक्ल पक्ष). The 11th day of each fortnight according Hindu calendar is called Ekadashi (एकादशी). Within a year there are usually 24 ekadashis i.e. two ekadashis in each month. But in case of Malamaas (मलमास) it can be up to 26. 

  1. Harishayani Ekadashi (हरिशयनी एकादशी) or Devshayani Ekadashi (देवशयनी) in Ashad Shukla Ekadashi (अषाढ २४, २०७१) (July 8, 2014)
  2. Kamika Ekadashi (कामिका एकादशी) in Shrawan Krishna Ekadashi (श्रावण 6, 2071) (July 22, 2014)
  3. Putrada Ekadashi (पुत्रदा एकादशी) in Shrawan Shukla Ekadashi  (श्रावण 22, 2071) (Aug 7, 2014)
  4. Aja Ekadashi (अजा एकादशी) in Bhadra Krishna Ekadashi (भदौ 5, 2071) (Aug 21, 2014)
  5. Paribartini Ekadashi (परिवर्तिनी एकादशी) in Bhadra Shukla Ekadashi (भदौ 20, 2071)  (Sep 5, 2014) 
  6. Indira Ekasadhi (इंदिरा एकादशी) in Aswin Krishna Ekadashi (असोज 3, 2071) (Sep 19, 2014)
  7. Papankush Ekadashi (पापांकुश एकादशी) in  Aswin Shukla Ekadashi (असोज 18, 2071) (Oct 4, 2014) Next day of Vijaya-Dashami
  8. Rama Ekadashi (रमा एकादशी) in Kartik Krishna Ekadashi (कार्तिक 2, 2071) (Oct 19, 2014)
  9. Haribodhini Ekadashi (हरिबोधिनी एकादशी) or Prabodhini Ekasadhi (प्रबोधिनी एकादशी) in Kartik Shukla Ekadashi (कार्तिक, 2071) (Nov 3, 2014)
  10. Utpatika Ekadashi (उत्पतिका एकादशी) or Utpanna Ekadashi (उत्पन्ना एकादशी) in Mangsir Krishna Ekadashi (मङ्सिर, 2071) (Nov 18, 2014)
  11. Mokshada Ekadashi (मोक्षदा एकादशी) in Marga Shukla Ekadashi (मङ्सिर, 2071) (Dec 2, 2014)
  12. Safala Ekadashi ( सफला एकादशी) in Poush Krishna Ekadashi (पौष, 2071) (Dec 18, 2014)
  13. Putrada Ekadashi (पुत्रदा एकादशी) in Poush Shukla Ekadashi  (पौष) (Jan 1, 2015)
  14. Sattila Ekadashi (षटतिला एकादशी) in Magh Krishna Ekadashi (माघ) (Jan 16, 2015)
  15. Bhima Ekasadhi (भीमा  एकादशी) or Jaya Ekasadhi (जया एकादशी) in Magh Shukla Ekadashi (माघ) (Jan 30, 2015)
  16. Bijaya Ekasadhi (विजया एकादशी) in Falgun Krishna Ekadashi (फागुन) (Feb 15, 2015)
  17. Aamlaki Ekadashi ( आमलकी एकादशी) in Falgun Shukla Ekadashi (फागुन) (March 1, 2015)
  18. Paapmochini (पापमोचिनी एकादशी) in Chaitra Krishna Ekadashi (चैत्र) (Mar 16, 2015)
  19. Kamada Ekadashi (कामदा एकादशी) in Chaitra Shukla Ekadashi  (चैत्र) ( March 31, 2015)
  20. Baruthini Ekadashi (वरूथिनी एकादशी) in Baishakh Krishna Ekadashi (वैशाख 2, 2072) (Apr 15, 2015)
  21. Mohini Ekadashi (मोहिनी एकादशी) in Baishakh Shukla Ekadashi (वैशाख 16, 2072) (April 29, 2015)
  22. Apara Ekadashi (अपरा एकादशी) in Jestha Krishna Ekadashi  (वैशाख 31, 2072) (May 14, 2015)
  23. Nirjala Ekadashi (निर्जला एकादशी) in  Jestha Shukla Ekadashi  (जेठ 15, 2072) ( May 29, 2015)
  24. Yogini Ekadashi (योगिनी एकादशी) in  Yogini Krishna Ekadashi (जेठ 29, 2072) (June 12, 2015)
** Padmini Ekasadhi (पद्मिनी एकादशी) (June 28 2015)
** Parma Ekasadhi (परमा एकादशी) (July 12, 2015)
NOTE : ** Malamaas (मलमास) occurs once in every three years.

Thuli Ekadashi & Tulsi Bibaha  

Among 24 Ekadashis throughout the year of the Hindu Calender, Harishayani Ekadashi (हरिशयनी एकादशी) and Haribodhini Ekadashi (हरिबोधिनी एकादशी) have special significance in Nepal, and are called the Thuli Ekadeshi (ठुली एकादशी / the Greater Ekadashis).

The day of Ashad Shukla Ekadashi (usually falls in June/July) is celebrated as Harishayani Ekadashi. On this day the seedlings are transplanted to pots or lands being accompanied by religious rites. Traditionally, it is done by men. And for following four months the plant is worshiped with special prayers, arati (lamps) and other rituals.

There is a mythology that in those four months, Lord Vishnu had reclined in front of demon king Bali’s palace upon the his request and on the day of Haribodhani Ekadashi he awoke and left for paradise.

After four months the day of Kartik Krishna Ekadashi is celebrated as Haribodhini Ekadashi or Lord Vishnu’s awakening day. People in Nepal throng different temples of lord Narayan (Vishnu), Bagmati River and other holy rivers to take a dip and observed the festival by fasting.

This day is also celebrated as Tulsi Bibaha (तुलसी बिबाह) . Tulasi (basil plant) is considered as an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. On this day Tulsi is married to the Shaligram (a fossil found in the Kali Gandaki river). Three days later, devotees offer one thousand basil's leaves to a sacred river or water.



5 Days of Tihar

Tihar (तिहार) or Yamapanchak (यमपञ्चक) is one of the important festival for Nepali Hindus. This festival is also called Dipawali/ Diwali (दिपावली / दिवाली) like in India but its observation procedure is slightly different from Indian Diwali.

In Nepal, Tihar is celebrated for Five days; as the divine attachment between Human and other animals and between brothers and sisters.

1st day : Kaag Tihar (काग तिहार  / Day of Crow) : Day of Kartik Krishna Trayodashi is celebrated as day for Crow. This day is also celebrated as Dhanteras (धनतेरस) buying precious metals like Silver and gold.

2nd day : Kukur Tihar (कुकुर तिहार / Day of Dog) : Day of Kartik Krishna Chaturdashi is celebrated as day for the dog. Food and garland are given to dog in this day.

3rd day : Gaai Tihar (गाई तिहार / Day of Cow) & Laxmi Puja (लक्ष्मी पुजा / Day of Laxmi, god of fortune) : New moon day or Aaushi (औंशी) is celebrated by worshiping the cow at the morning and goddess Laxmi at the evening. At the evening candles and lights are lit throughout the house and people participate in community play "deusi bhailo". Traditionally "Bhailo" is played by females in Laxmi Puja and "Deusi" is played by male next day. This day is also celebrated as main day of Diwali by Hindus around the world.

4th day : Gobhardhan Puja (गोबर्धन पुजा / Day of Ox) : Day of Kartik Shukla Pratipada, is celebrated worshiping the ox. This day Newari community do Mha Puja (म्हपुजा / worship of self). This day is also observed as the beginning of Nepal Sambat (A Calendar Native to Nepal).  

5th day : Bhai Tika (भाई टिका / Day of brothers and sisters) : This is the last and most important day of Tihar. Its celebrated at the day of Kartik Shukla Dwitiya according Hindu calendar. Brothers and sisters gather together and sisters put tika on the foreheads of brothers, to ensure long life, and thank them for the protection they give.

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