Khas Empire of Western Nepal

There was a powerful Khas Empire (खस साम्राज्य) (aka Western Malla Kingdom) in present day western Nepal between 11th to 14th century. The center of the kingdom was Sinja Valley.

(This article is related to ancient Khasa tribe and present day Khas Poeple of Nepal.)

This was the place where the Nepali language and culture originated. The earliest examples of Devanagari script from the 13th Century were found here. These archaeological sites are located in Jumla, Surkhet and Dailekh districts.

The 'Khas Empire' is a different state than 'Khasa Kingdom' as maintained in Mahabharat. The time frame of 'the Empire' is 12th-14th century AD whereas 'the kingdom' was involved in Kurukshetra war whose estimated dating is 6000 BCE to 500 BCE according to different claims. But the root of both states are same. The kingdom was disbanded earlier due to some reasons and united back again in 12th century. In its greatest extent the boundary of empire were whole of western Nepal, present day Uttarakhand state of India and south western Tibet.

"In central Asia khas are still called 'kas'. They had had habitation in the river Dangala between Iran and Iraq. The place was known as Khusistan. They moved east before Christ. They had Khas empire by 12th century in western Nepal. Khas people were non vadic aryan as maintained in the Mahabharat. They used to worship cow, land, Masto (kuldeveta) and bhawani (goddess). Masto and Bhawani were the creation of Khas people."
**source: KR & TC Das Sharma, Globalization And Plantation Workers In North-East India)

The Khas people were fierce warrior. According to Gopal bamsabali ancient Khasa Kingdom defeated Kathmandu (aka Nepal at that time) 13 times. Initially the Khas Kings were Buddhist. Later they adopted Hinduism.

After late 14th century the Khas Malla kingdom collapsed and divided into Baise Rajya (22 principalities) in Karnali-Bheri region and 12 principalities in Gandak region (Among Chaubise rajyas- 24 principalities 12 were Khas and 12 were Magar Rajyas). The 22 principalities were Jumla, Doti, Jajarkot, Bajura, Gajur, Biskot, Malneta, Thalahara, Dailekh, Dullu, Duryal, Tulsipur-Dang, Sallyana, Chilli, Phalawagh, Jehari, Darnar, Atbis Gotam, Majal, Gurnakot, and Rukum. And the 24 principalities were Gorkha, Lamjung, Tanahun, Kaski, Nuwakot, Dhor, Satahun, Garahun, Rishing, Ghiring, Paiyun, Parbat, Galkot, Palpa, Gulmi, Argha, Khanchi, Musikot, Isma, Dhurkot, Bajhang, Bhirkot, Piuthan, and Butwal.

Main Article: Baaise, Chaubise

Kingdom of Gorkha, one among 24 principalities, later defeated all other neighboring kingdoms under the leadership of the Great King Prithivi Narayan Shah and created the base of unified Kingdom of Nepal. They moved the capital city from Gorkha to Kathmandu. His descendants later extended the boundary of Nepal all the way to Punjab to the west and Teesta river  near Bhutan to the east.

Kingdom of Dullu, one among 22 states which was the original successor of Khas empire, became sub national kingdom of Nepal after the unification. Later King Mahendra annexed it into Nepal in 1960.

List of known Kings:-

Naagraj (नागराज) (1093 AD)
Chaap (चाप)
Chapilla (चापिल्ल)
Krashichalla (क्राशिचल्ल) 
Kradhichalla (क्राधिचल्ल)
Krachalla (क्राचल्ल)  (1189-1223)
Ashok Chlla / Malla (अशोक चल्ल) (1223-87) (titled himself "khasha-rajadhiraja") (1)
Jitari Malla (जितारी मल्ल) [attacked Kathmandu in 1288 and 1289 AD]
Ripu Malla (रिपु मल्ल) (1312-13) Nephew of Jitari Malla
Aditya Malla (आदित्य मल्ल) (end of Rule Nagraj Clan)
Punya Malla (पुन्य मल्ल) son in law of Aditya Malla
Prithvi Malla (पृथ्वी मल्ल) had no son
Surya Malla (सूर्य मल्ल) Son of Ripu Malla, Nagraj clan back to rule
Abhaya Malla (अभयमल्ल) (13551391) [abducted by his courtier Malaya Burma]
Malaya Burma (मलय वर्मा) (1391– ) [Khas empire broke down after Malaya Burma]