Sen Kingdoms of Nepal

Rudra Sen was the founder of the united Kingdom of Palpa. His son Mukunda sen (aka Mani Mukunda Sen) ruled after him. But after the death of Mukunda Sen, the huge kingdom of Palpa was  divided into four small kingdoms among his four sons in 1553 AD. Butwal, Palpa, Tanahun, and Makawanpur were then ruled by Binayak sen, Manikya sen, Bhrigu sen and Lohag sen respectively.

The Secret Mukunda Sen
*The actual lifetime of Mukunda Sen is still in debate.
-Mukunda Sen Invaded Kathmandu on 1100 AD.
Gorkha, a history of Nepal  (1957). by Francis Tucker, British Lieutenant General
-Mukunda Sen invaded Kathmandu on 1245 AD.
Mediaeval History of Nepal (1958) by Luciano Petech
-Rudra Sen (father of Mukunda Sen) issued a document in 1514 AD.
Tanahunko Sen Vamsha, Atricle (1940), Baburam Acharya
*The Race of Mukunda Sen is also in debate.
Different parties have claimed 'Mukunda Sen' be Thakuri, Magar, Katnat etc.

Palpa came under Manikya sen after portation. Tansen was the capital of the Palpa kingdom. Following the marriage between daughter of King Mahadat sen and Bahadur shah in 1784, Palpa had an agreement with Kindom of Gorkha to help them during their westward expansion. Because of this Palpa kingdom survived longer than other kingdoms. Palpa supported Gorkha/Nepal on military campaign against  Gulmi, Argha, Khachi, Dhurkot, Isma, Parbat, Pyuthan, Dang and Rolpa. For this Gorkha gifted Palpa three kingdoms (Gulmi, Argha & Khachi) along with other valuables. But in 1806, Prithivipal Sen, the last king of Palpa, was asked to come to Kathmandu and he was beheaded.

Butwal came under Binayek Sen after portation of 1553 AD. But after years this kingdom came back under Palpa rule again. The area of Butwal was the immediate cause of Anglo-Nepal war in 1814. Nepal had laid it claim on Butwal in 1804 AD because it used to be under Palpa Kingdom which was now under Kingdom of Nepal. After Sugaili Treaty following the Anglo-Nepal war, Nepal lost a lot of Terai lands, but surprisingly British did not take Butwal back. [Sugauli Treaty Article 3 (ii)]

Tanahun came under Bhrigu Sen after portation of 1553 AD. During unification around (1744-56) King of Gorkha Prithvi Narayan Shah called King of Tanahun Tribikram Sen through Guru Gaureswar who was the common preceptor of Narabhupal Shah (father of Prithvi Narayan Shah) and Tribikram Sen to the bank of the Trishuli River on the pretext of making friendship. Tribikram Sen came, but he was captured by the Gorkhas. He was then taken in chains to Nuwakot and was imprisoned there. Gorkha got hold of Tanahun by this and annexed it.

Makwanpur came under youngest son of Mukunda sen 'Lohang Sen'. Indra Kumari, brother of last king of Makwanpur Digbandhan Sen, was married to King Prithivi Narayan Shah of Gorkha. Makwanpur was intigrated into Nepal (Gorkha) in Aug 21, 1762 AD. King Digbandhan Sen was arrested on Feb 13, 1763.

Kings of Makwanpur
Lohang Sen (1609-1661)
Harihar Sen (1661-1684) (grandson of Lohang)
Subha Sen (1684- ) (son of Harihar)
Manik Sen ( - ) (son of Subha - older brother of Mahipati Sen of Bijayapur)
Hemkarna Sen ( - )(son of Manik)
Digbandhan Sen ( - 1762)

Makwanpur (Sen) rule on Morang/ Vijayapur and Limbuwan

Related : Limbuwan Kingdoms

From 1609 to 1769 AD for about 160 years, Sen Kings from Makwanpur also ruled Kingdom of Morang and allied to the other southern and western Limbuwan Kingdoms.

Kings of Bijayapur
King Lo Hang Sen (Makwanpur) (1609-1661 AD),
King Harihar Sen (Makwanpur) (1661–1684 AD),
King Subha Sen (Makwanpur) and King Bidhata Indra Sen (1684-1706 AD),
Queen Padmidhata Induraj Rajeswari Sabitra Sen (1706-1725 AD),
King Mahipati Sen (1725-1761 AD) and
King Kamadatta Sen (1761-1769 AD) ruled Morang and effectively rest of south west Limbuwan.

In 1769 AD, the exiled Prime minister of Buddhi Karna assassinated the King Kama Datta Sen and declared himself the King of Morang.

In 1773 AD defeated King of Chaudandi Karn Singh arrived Bijayapur. Buddi Karna then made him the new king of Bijayapur.

Bijayapur was annexed to Nepal in July 17, 1774. Both King Karn Singh and PM Buddi Karna feld to Sikkim then to Calcutta.

Sen Kingdom of Chaudandi 
In 1730, King of Morang Mahipati Sen created a state in central kirat west of Arun river including terai regions and gave it to Jagat Sen (his nephew, brother of Hemkarna Sen of Makwanpur). Capital of Chaudandi was Udayapur fort in inner terai. Gorkha Army entered into Chaudandi in Aug 1772 and captured the capital in July 16, 1773. King Karn Sen fled east to Bijayapur.

Kings of Chaudandi
Jagat Sen (1730- )
Mukunda Sen IV (Brother of Jagat Sen)
Vikrama Sen (another brother of Jagat Sen)
Karna Sen (1762-1773 )(Son of Vikram sen)(fled to Bijaypur then to Sikkim then to Calcutta)

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References:-
https://madhesi.wordpress.com/2007/01/14/historical-the-sen-kingdoms/
State-making and Territory in South Asia: Lessons from the Anglo–Gorkha War
By Bernardo A. Michael

Doon Rediscovered
By Shyam Ganguli