Historical administrative division of Nepal

Administrative division of Nepal is recently changed by promulgating the new constitution of Nepal 2015 in Sep 20, but its yet to be fully implemented. In common practice until today the old system is still in use in some aspects.

(see also: Proposed Federal structures, New federal structure of Nepal)

Before this constitution, Nepal was divided into 5 development regions and 14 zones and 75 districts in nested-hierarchical manner. 75 districts were divided into City and Villages and each city and villages were further sub-divided into 'wards' ranging from minimum 9 (in vdc) to maximum 35 (ktm). For example- Full Address of Mt Everest was: Eastern Development region, Sagarmatha  zone, Solukhumbu district, Khumjung V.D.C., Ward no 4. Immediately before new restructure implemented in 2017 Jan, there were 3,157 Village Development Committees and 217 municipalities.

Nepal had 58 municipalities & 4915 VDCs until July 2011. Old 58 municipalities are as follows:- State 1: Damak, Mechinagar, Bhadrapur, Ilam, Dharan, Itahari, Inaruwa, Biratnagar, Khandbari, Triyuga, Dhankuta, Bhimeshwar, Kamalamai, State 2: Birganj, Gulariya, Malangwa, Siraha, Lahan, Gaur, Kalaiya, Jaleswar, Rajbiraj, Janakpur, State 3: Kathmandu, Kirtipur, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Madhyapur Thimi, Ratnanagar, Bharatpur, Hetauda, Banepa, Dhulikhel, Panauti, Bidur, State 4,5,6: Gorkha, Pokhara, Lekhnath, Butwal-Rupandehi, Siddharthanagar- Rupandehi, Nepalganj, Tikapur-Kailali, Kapilvastu, Byas-Tanahu, Putalibazar-Syangja, Ramgram-Nawalparasi, Baglung, Tansen-Palpa, Waling-Syangja, Narayan-Dailekh, Ghorahi -Dang, Tulsipur-Dang, Birendranagar-Surkhet, State 7: Dhangadhi, Bhim Dutta, Amaragadhi, Dasharathchand, Dipayal-Silgadhi.

Govt declared new 41 municipalities in 2011 July merging 161 VDCs but not implemented. In May 8 2014 Government added 72 new municipalities (including already announced 41 and merging 283 VDCs together) making total 130. In Dec 2014 Govt again added 61 municipalities making total 191 municipalities and VDCs reduced to 3,276. Govt added 26 more in Sep 2015 and 46 more in March 2017 making total 263 municipalities before constitution of 2015 implemented on local level and after the constitution promulgated.

Under the new system there are 7 states in Nepal removing old 5 development regions and 14 zones. The old 75 districts are kept as it was except two districts (Nawalparasi & Rukum) are split.  In 2017 Aug 21 Government recognized two parts of Nawalparasi & Rukum as separate districts effectively making total 77 districts in Nepal. As of 2017/7 there are total 744 local levels including 6 metropolitan cities, 11 sub-metropolitan cities, 246 municipalities and 481 villages-councils.


History

During King Rajendra Bikram and PM Bhimsen Thapa in 1816 A.D. Nepal was divided into 10 districts. All eastern areas from Dudhkoshi river was in one Dhankuta district.

During the rule of Rana PM Bir Shamsher (1885-1901) Nepal was further divided into total 32 districts. There were 20 districts in hill and 12 districts in terai. Palpa and Dhankuta were the center (gaunda) of west and east. Terai districts used to be call Tahsil (तहसिल).

Under Dhankuta gauda (धनकुटा गौंडा) there were 6 districts :-
  1. East no 1 (पूर्व १ नम्वर) Kabhre (काभ्रेपलाञ्चोक), Sindhupalchowk (सिन्धुपाल्चोक)
  2. East No 2 (पूर्व २ नम्वर) Dolakha (दोलखा), Ramechhap (रामेछाप)
  3. East No 3 (पूर्व ३ नम्वर) Okhaldhunga (ओखलढुंगा), Solukhumbu (सोलुखुम्बु)
  4. East No 4 (पूर्व ४ नम्वर ) Bhojpur (भोजपुर), Khotang (खोटाङ्)
  5. Ilam (इलाम) now Illam and Panchthar (पाँचथर)
  6. Dhanuta (धनकुटा) now Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha (संखुवासभा), Terathaum (तेह्रथुम), Taplejung (ताप्लेजुङ्)

Other Eastern Districts/Tahsils:-
  1. Jhapa now Jhapa (झापा)
  2. Biratnagar (विराटनगर) now Morang (मोरङ्) and Sunsari (सुनसरी)
  3. Saptari now Saptari (सप्तरी) and Siraha (सिराहा)
  4. Mahottari now Dhanusha (धनुषा), Mahottari (महोत्तरी) and Sarlahi (सर्लाही)
  5. Udayapur now Udayapur (उदयपुर)
  6. Khajhani (खजहनी) now Sindhuli (सिन्धुली)
Central Districts:-
  1. Kathmandu (काठमाडौं) now Kathmandu (काठमाडौं)   
  2. Bhaktapur (भक्तपुर) now Bhaktapur (भक्तपुर)
  3. Lalitpur (ललितपुर) now Lalitpur (ललितपुर)
  4. Birgunj (वीरगञ्ज) now Bara (बारा), Parsa (पर्सा), Rautahat (रौतहट)
  5. Chisapanigadhi (चिसापानीगढी) now Makwanpur (मकवानपुर), Chitwan (चितवन)
Western Districts:-
  1. West no 1 (पश्चिम १ नम्बर) Dhading (धादिङ्), Nuwakot (नुवाकोट), Rasuwa (रसुवा)
  2. West no 2 (पश्चिम २ नम्बर) Gorkha (गोरखा)
  3. West no 3 (पश्चिम ३ नम्बर) Kaski(कास्की), Lamjung (लमजुङ्), Manang (मनाङ्), Tanahun (तनहुँ)
  4. West no 4 (पश्चिम ४ नम्बर) Syangja(स्याङ्जा), Parbat (पर्वत)
  5. Palimajh Khand (पालिमाझ खण्ड) Kapilvastu (कपिलवस्तु), Nawalparasi (नवलपरासी), Rupendehi (रुपन्देही)
  6. Palpa (पाल्पा) now Palpa (पाल्पा)
  7. Baglung (बाग्लुङ्) now Baglung (बाग्लुङ्), Mustang (मुस्ताङ्), Myagdi (म्याग्दी)
  8. Gulmi (गुल्मी) now Arghakhanchi (अर्घाखाँची), Gulmi (गुल्मी)
Districts in present Mid western region:-
  1. Pyuthan (प्यूठान) now Pyuthan (प्यूठान)
  2. Salyan (सल्यान) now Salyan(सल्यान), Rukum (रुकुम), Rolpa (रोल्पा), Jajarkot (जाजरकोट)
  3. Dailekh (दैलेख) now Dailekh (दैलेख), Surkhet (सुर्खेत)
  4. Jumla (जुम्ला) now Dolpa (डोल्पा), Humla (हुम्ला), Jumla (जुम्ला), Mugu (मुगु), Kalikot (कालीकोट)
  5. Dang (दाङ्) now Dang (दाङ्)
  6. Bankebardia (बाँके बर्दिया) now Banke (बाँके), Bardiya (बर्दिया)
Districts in present Far Western region:-
  1. Doti (डोटी) now Achham(अछाम), Bajhang (बझाङ्), Bajura (बाजुरा), Doti (डोटी)
  2. Baitada (बैतडा) now Baitadi (बैतडी), Darchula (दार्चुला)
  3. Dadeldhura (डडेलधुरा) now Dadeldhura (डडेलधुरा)
  4. Kailali (कैलाली) now Kailali (कैलाली), Kanchanpur (कञ्चनपुर)

Before Apr 13, 1961 there were 35 districts in Nepal.

Old 35 districts of Nepal (effective before Apr 13, 1961) [karma99.com]


On 1961 (BS 2018/1/1) Nepal was divided into 14 Zones and 75 districts by King Mahendra.

In 1972 Nepal was divided into 4 development regions by King Birendra. But in 1980, the westernmost region was further divided in to two regions shaping present day mid-western and far-western regions.

In 1975 (BS 2032/8/26) Tibrikot (तिब्रीकोट) district was renamed as Kalikot (कालीकोट), because of which Kalikot district is also known as Kanchho Jilla (कान्छो जिल्ला, the Youngest district) now.



References:-