Baaise and Chubise Rajyas (14th-18th century)

Before the unification Nepal was divided into several small kingdoms. This article is about what we study as Baaise Rajya and Chubise Rajyathat existed immediately before present Nepal was shaped and their preceding states. Baise region was around Karnali river and Chaudise region are around Gandaki river.

After the dissolution of Western Khas Kingdom in 14th century the era of small states (baaise, chaubisi) began. From 14th century until the unification of Nepal (1744-1806) many new kingdoms were established and many were merged among them. Maximum we can find total 31 states in baaise region and 29 states in Chaubise region.

According to a legend, in Jumla kingdom, there were 11 mountains and 11 rives so it was also called 'baais paakha' (बाइस पाखा, 22 bases). Also the all kingdoms under the influences of Jumla at that time were collectively known as Baaise Rajyas (22s Principalities). Chaubise kingdoms were some 24 states around Gandaki basin. 

13th century AD: Kalikot (कालीकोट) [now in Kalikot district]

13th century AD : Doti (डोटी) was one of the powerful kingdom in far western (SudurPaschim) region before the unification. Niranjan Malla Dev was the founder of Doti Kingdom in 13th century. They were known as Rainka Maharaj. Karnali river was its eastern border and this kingdom also consisted western parts of present day Uttarakhand, India and Terai regions as well. Mughol Army Chief Hussain Khan had made unsuccessful attack on DOTI kingdom during Akbar's rule in the 16th century. The last king of Doti Deep Shahi was defeated by united Nepal army led by Captain Ranbir Khatri in 1790 AD. After being expelled from Nepal in 1790 Raja Deep Shahi managed to establish Khairgarh-Singhai State in then Oudh region of British India (now Lakhimpur Kheri, UP, India) . (li) His successor Prithivi Pati Shahi (1790) had fought against Nepali Ruler (Gorkhali Ruler) joining British forcers in the 1814 Anglo Nepal war.

After Niranjan Malla Dev following kings ruled DOTI: Nagi Malla (1238), Ripu Malla (1279), Nirai Pal (1353), Nag Malla (1384), Dhir Malla (1400), Ripu Malla (1410), Anand Malla (1430), Balinarayan Malla, Sansar Malla (1442), Kalyan Malla (1443), Suratan Malla (1478), Kriti Malla (1482), Prithivi Malla (1488), Medini Jay Malla (1512), Ashok Malla (1517), Raj Malla (1539), Arjun Malla/Shahi, Bhupati Malla/Shahi (1558), Sagaram Shahi (1567), Hari Malla/Shahi (1581), Rudra Shahi (1630), Vikram Shahi (1642), Mandhata Shahi (1671), Raghunath Shahi (1690), Hari Shahi (1720), Hrishna Shahi (1760), Deep Shahi (1785).

1380 AD : Mustang (मुस्ताङ) (BS 1440-BS1886) (L) was established by the King Ame Pal in 1380 A.D. In 1829 AD During King Rana Bahaudr Shah Mustang was integrated in to Nepal as a dependent kingdom by treaty between two kingdoms. So Even after being unified in Nepal, kings of Mustang along with Kings of Bajhang, Jajarkot and Salyan were enjoying special status until Nepal was declared republic Oct 7th, 2008. The 21st and Last king of Mustang Jigme Palbar Bista (जिग्मे प्रवल विष्ट) died in Dec 15, 2016.

1389 AD : Sanni (सान्नी)

Khas Empire (11th-14th century): After the death of King Malaya Barma (मलय वर्मा) his sons claimed their personal kingdoms. Dullu (Sansari Barma),  Jajarkot-Juktipur (Medini Barma), Salyan (Sumeru Barma), Rukum (Pitambar) were established.

1396 AD : Dullu (दुल्लु) (wiki) was the tiny successor state of original Khas Empire. Its boundaries were Jajarkot in the east, Doti in the west, Jumla in the north and Dhulikot in the south. It was established by the King Sansari Barma (संसारी वर्मा) in 1396 AD. At its establishment this Kingdom used to consist Dullu, Dailekh, Achham and Bilaspur States. But after Samsari Barma the kingdom was split and a new kingdom Belaspur (बेलासपुर) was established in one portion in 1418 AD. In 1789 AD (BS 1846/7/21) Kingdom of Dullu was unified in Nepal. However, King Girban of Nepal re-established Dullu Kingdom and made Rudra Shahi, descendent of dullu kings, a titular king and gave him the right of local administration. After Raja Rajauta Unmulan Ain of BS 2017, Dullu kingdom was integrated into present day Dailekh district in BS 2019.

1396 AD : Gotaam (गोताम)

1398 AD : Jajarkot-Juktipur (जाजरकोट-जक्तिपुर) was established by Medini Barma splitting from Khas empire in 1398 AD. It was integrated into Nepal in the campaign of 1785-90 AD.

1398 AD : Rukum (रुकुम)

1398 AD : Jumla (जुम्ला) was one of the powerful baaise kingdom. It was in the north of Dullu Kingdom.

1408 AD : Dhurkot (धुर्कोट) u-1785-90

1418 AD :  Bilaspur (विलासपुर) was established by Sri Bamm (श्री वम्म), son of Sansari Bamm, from Dullu Kingdom in 1418 AD.  Its boundaries were Jajarkot in the east, Chhamgad river in the west, Jumla kingdom in the north and Veri river in the south.

1418 AD : Jahari (जहारी),

1418 AD : Pallo Musikot (पल्लो मुसीकोट) u-1785-90,

1418 AD : Banfi (बाँफी),

1418 AD :Salyan (सल्यान). Its southern border was Dang(Tulsipur) state.

1428 AD : Achham(अछाम) u-1785-90,

1428 AD : Darna (दर्ना)

1433 AD : Argha (अर्घा)

1435 AD : Khanchi  (खाँची) u-1785-90

1436 AD : Parbat  (पर्वत) u-1784 AD,
1436 AD : Gulmi (गुल्मी) u-1785-90

1443 AD : Bhirkot (भिरकोट) u-1784

1445 AD : Paiyun (पैयुँ) u-1784

1446 AD : Bajhang (बझाङ). Even after being unified in Nepal, kings of Bajhang, Mustang, Jajarkot and Salyan were enjoying special status until Nepal was declared republic Oct 7th, 2008. Raja Jay Prithvi Bahadur Singh (1877-1940) is the iconic figure of Bajhang kingdom. Raja Binod Bahadur Singh is said to be the 61st and last Raja of Bajhang since 1989.

1446 AD : Thalara (थलारा)

1450 AD: Darma (दार्मा)
1450 AD: Thuni Bosakot (थुनी बोसाकोट)

1453 AD: Dhor (ढोर) u-1784
1453 AD: Satahun (सतहुँ) u-1784
1453 AD: Garhaun (गह्रौं) u-1784
1453 AD: Nuwakot (नुवाकोट) u-1744

1467 AD : Kaski (कास्की)

1493 ADDang / Tulsipur (दाङ). This state is in the history of both country Nepal and India. Its area was about 150 by 150 miles bordering Salyan and Pyuthan State in North and Balrampur estate of Awadh region in South. Some sources say that in 1760 AD King Prithvi Narayan Shah defeated 40th Chauhan King of Dang King Nawal Singh and given this region to Salyan as a dowry in the marriage of King Prithvi's daughter to Ranabhim Shah in 1763 AD.(L) King Nawal Singh then moved to south and ruled southern parts of the kingdom. Nepal lost its western terai after anglo-Nepal war followed by Sugauli Treaty in 1816.  Sipoy mutiny happened in India in 1857. As a result, 44th Chauhan Rajah Dirg Narayan Singh lost his remaining lower-half kingdom which was then ruled by British as the part of North-western Province which is now known as UP. After the mutiny, Nepal got  its terai land (northern half of Dang kingdom) back. Rana PM Bir Shamshare brought the disposed 46th Chauhan Sardar Hardayal Singh (grandson of Dirg Narayan) to Nepal in 1886 and they lived in Nepal since then. The 50th Chauhan Rajpal Jwala Pratap Singh (1964) (Great great grandson of Hardayal Singh) married to Sabina Thapa, daughter of Ex PM Surya Bahadur Thapa.

1493 AD : Gajul (गजुल) :  Gajulkot and Khungri were the small kingdoms in present day Rolpa district. According to one legend King of Juktipur TuthaSen became the king of Gajul. After about 6 generation DhairyaPal became the King of Gajul. KarnaPal, brother of Dhairyapal, became the king of Khungri.

1493 AD : Lamjung (लमजुङ्) Ancesters of The Great Pritivi Narayan Shah used to rule in Lamjung. Kulmandan Shah was the king of Kaski. His youngest son Yaso Bramha Shah became the king of Lamjung. Yaso Bramha Shah had two sons, Narahari and Drabya sha. Narahari Shah became the king of Lamjung and the youngest son Drabya shah became the king of Gorkha, which was later ruled by the great king Prithvi Narayan Shah. Kingdom of Lamjung was integrated into Nepal in 1782 AD.

1493 AD : Palpa (पाल्पा): See Sen Kingdoms of Nepal It was one of the powerful kingdom. But in 1553 kingdom was broken into four small kingdoms Palpa, Butwal, Tanahun and Makwanpur. After sometime Palpa gained control of Butwal. Daughter of Palpali king Mahadat sen and Chief-executive of Nepal Bahadur shah got married in 1784. Then palpa supported newly unified Nepal in western front. In 1806 Palpa was the last kingdom to be unified into Nepal.

1493 AD : Isma (इस्मा): 6th and Last thakuri king of Isma Govinda Singh Rathore (गोविन्द सिंह राठौर) was defeated by the Gorkhali Army in B.S.1843/6/4. The boundary of Isma was Aglung Hills to Jhimruk in west, present Gwalichaur, Baglung district to the north, and Kingdoms of Durkot and Musikot in south and east respectively.
Wallo Musikot (वल्लो मुसीकोट) u-1785-90

1498 AD : Bajura (बाजुरा)

1503 AD : Pyuthan (प्युठान) u-1785-90

1543 AD : Ghiring (घिरिङ)

1553 AD: Tanahun (तनहुँ) : After the partition of united Palpa kingdom in 1553, Bhrigu Sen got Tanahun. It remained as a powerful kingdom until integrated into Nepal in 1779 AD.
1553 AD : Rising (रिसिङ) u-1784
1553 AD : Darchha Rampur (दर्छा रामपुर) was in present Palpa district.
1553 AD : Butwal (बुटवल) : After the partition of united Palpa kingdom in 1553, Binayek Sen got Butwal. But for most of time after that Butwal and Syuraj (Kapilvastu) came under Palpa Kingdom again. Butwal along with Palpa was integrated into Nepal in 1806 AD. Butwal was the immediate cause of Anglo-Nepal war in 1814 AD. 

1559 AD : Gorkha (गोरखा) : Mansingh Khadka Magar was the last ghale king of gorkha until 27 Sept 1559 AD who was replaced by king Drabya Shah, ancestor of The Great King Prithvi Narayan Shah. The boundary of Gorkha kingdom at that time was Marshandi River to the west and Trishuli river to the east.

1568 AD: Dhulikot (धुलीकोट)

1574 AD : Galkot (गलकोट)  (see also link) [now in Baglung District]

1673 AD : Chhilli (छिल्ली)

1693 AD: Khungri (खुङ्ग्री) : Gajulkot and Khungri were the small kingdoms in present day Rolpa district. According to one legend King of Juktipur TuthaSen became the king of Gajul. After about 6 generation DhairyaPal became the King of Gajul. KarnaPal, brother of DhairyaPal, became the king of Khungri.

1733 AD : Malneta (माल्नेटा)

Udayapur, Pyuthan : King Mahendra in 2017 B.S. abolished the title of Last king of Udayapur Hari Prasad Karki Upadhyaya.

बाइसे राज्य: जुम्ला, डोटी, जाजरकोट, बाजुरा, गजुर, बिसकोट, माल्नेटा, थलहरा, दैलेख, दुल्लु, डुर्याल, तुल्सीपुर दाङ, सल्यान, चिल्ली, फलाबाघ, जहारी, दर्नार, आठबीस, गोताम, मजाल, गुर्णकोट, रुकुम
चौबिसी राज्य: गोरखा, लम्जुङ, तनहुँ, कास्की, नुवाकोट, ढोर, सतहुँ, गराहुँ, रिसिङ, घिरिङ, पैयुँ, पर्वत, गल्कोट, पाल्पा, गुल्मी, अर्घा, खाँची, मुसीकोट, इस्मा, धुर्कोट, बझाङ, भीरकोट, पिउठान, बुटवल

Other Kingdoms
According to Father Giuseppe in Account of the Kingdom of Nepal

ktm city:18,000 houses
12-13 days journey from south to north. 
north border: Tibet
50,000 solders
Nuwakot under Kathmandu was main route to trade with tibet

Lalitpur/ Patan
lalitpur city:24,000 houses
south border from city: 4 days journey
south border: Kingdom of Makwanpur
Kirtipur under lalitpur: city houses 8,000

Bhadgaun city: 12,000 houses
east border: 5-6 days journey 
east border: Kirat

Sen Kingdoms : Makwanpur, Chaudandi, Vijayapur/ Morang, Palpa, Tanahun

*Raja Rajauta Unmulan Ain 2017 B.S. (Kingship Abolition Act 1960 AD) by King Mahendra
=4 Kingdoms were left with honorary title (Bajhang, Mustang, Salyan, Jajarkot)
=9 kings were left with honorary title until they alive.
*Republic of Nepal (2008 Oct 7)
=title and power of King of Nepal and all other local kings were abolished.

Online Reference:-
Book References:-
  1. "Account of the Kingdom of Nepal" by Francis Buchanan Hamilton
  2. "Kirtikhamb" (कीर्तिखम्ब) by Bishwa K.C. Pokhrel
  3. ancient history of nepal (
Tags: Baaisi Chaubisi, Titrikot Rapti,