Timeline of Tharu movement in Nepal

This timeline is about Tharuhat/ Tharuwan movement in Nepal associated with ethnic Tharu identity. Some other events in Nepal indirectly related with this movement is also included. *being updated


2001 Aug/ Sep: Maoists formed central people's government led by Dr Baburam Bhattarai. They also initiated the idea of 9 racial provinces, one of which was "Tharuwan".

2001 Nov 23: Maoists attacked Nepal Army for the first time. In Dang attack 14 soldiers and 9 police officers were dead.

2002: Kamaiya, a bonded agricultural labor tradition mainly affected Tharu community, became illegal in Nepal with The Kamaiya Labour (Prohibition) Act, 2002.  Total 27,570 former kamaiya rehabilitated.

2006 Apr 24 : 19-days democracy movement succeed. King Gyanendra reinstated disbanded parliament.

2006 Nov 21: Comprehensive Peace Accord (CPA) signed between Government and CPN Maoist.

2006: Tharuhat Autonomous State Council (TASC) established following the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Accord incorporating a range of pre-existing Tharu organizations like TKS, Backward Society Education (BASE) etc.

2007 Jan 15: Interim Constitution of Nepal 2007 implemented.

2007 Jan 16: 1st madheshi upraising started. 22 point agreement signed between gov and MJF in
2007 Aug 30. One of the main demand of this upraising was "One Madhesh One province" which consisted also Tharuwan area.

2008 Feb 28 : 8-point agreement signed between government and United Democratic Madheshi Front after 2nd madhesi upraising

2008 May 28: 1st constituent assembly election. Maoist became single largest party followed by NC & UML. Newly formed Madheshi parties performed good securing 4th,5th & 6th rank. No thru centric parties in the CA.

2008: Laxman Tharu, a maoist battalian commander, broke away from maoists after the election. (l)


2009 - Year of Defining Tharu Identity

2009 Mar 5 Thu: Two protestors killed (Kamal Chaudhari and Bipin Khadka) in Chitwan Thursday night when police opened fire to disperse the Tharu protestors who had blocked the East-West Highway. Tharus are demanding revocation of the ordinance that recognizes Tharu communities as Madheshis. Administration enforced curfew from friday.

2009 Mar 6 Fri: APF police Kumar Budhathoki killed and another policeman seriously injured by Tharu demonstrators in Sauraha, Chitwan despite of curfew.

2009 Mar 18: cabinet approved the six-point agreement signed between the Government and various Tharu organisations on March 14. Both had agreed on points, including amending the constitution and laws to replace the term ''Madhesh'' by ''Terai-Madhesh'' and guaranteeing a distinct identity to Tharus and other ethnic communities living in the southern plains.

2009 Apr 22: Joint Tharuhat Struggle Committee (JTSC) led by Laxman Tharu called for indefinite general strike on terai districts.

2009 Apr 28: Police arrested JTSC chairman Laxman Tharu from Baneshwar in Kathmandu.

2009 Jul 17: Tharuhat Struggle Committee in Nawalparasi started a campaign to form the Tharu Liberation Army and said to recruit 100,000 army personnel within the six months.

2009 Aug 24: Dang District (DAO)  banned all activities of the Tharuhat National Council (TNC) after it displayed its ''army'' in Dang. Some 500 activists clad in combat dresses from various 22 Terai Districts had gathered in Dang from August 23 for what they have called their ''First Military Convention".

2009 Dec 13: Maoists declared five Districts in western Terai as Tharuwan autonomous State as part of the party's third round of protests in Nepalgunj. Tharu Kalyankarini Sabha (TKS) general secretary Raj Kumar Lekhi objected that saying Maoists undermined the Constituent Assembly by declaring States, and without considering the concerns of indigenous communities.

2010 Feb 14: TJSC declared Tharuhat State incorporating 23 districts from Morang in the east to Kanchanpur in the west in Chhatapipara, Bara. Ram Narayan Gouro of Parsa is declared the chief executive of the state.

2011 Apr 5: first convention of the UML-aligned Nepal Democratic Tharu Association in Dhangadi demanded three Tharuhat provinces in terai. Its secretory Baldev Chaudhary said three states would be: Eastern Tharuhat (Morang to Siraha), Central Tharuhat  (Dhanusha to Nawalparasi) and Western Tharuhat (Dang to Kanchanpur).

2012 Jan 19 : State Reconstruction Commission proposed two separate federal structures, one with 11 states (including one non territorial state) and another with 6 states. (link) (link) (link) (linkThe 11 state model has one tharu majority state in western terai from Nawalparasi to Kanchanpur districts.

2012 May 23: agitating TJSC and the government reached a ten-point agreement bringing an end to the ongoing general strikes called by the TJSC. government greed to demarcate the area from Kanchanpur to Chitwan as Tharuhat/Tharuwan state, the area from Parsa to Dhanusa as Simraunagad state and from Siraha-Udayapur to Jhapa as Eastern Tharuhat/ Kochila state on the basis of reports of the State Restructuring Committee of the Constituent Assembly (CA) in 2010.

2013 Nov 19: 2nd constituent assembly election. Tharuhat Tarai Party Nepal led by Bhanuram Chaudhari won 2 seats among total 601 were as Sanghiya Loktantrik Rastriya Manch (Tharuhat) got 1 seat. Most of Tharu mejority constituencies won by ethnic Tharu leaders from either of 3 major national parties.

2014 Oct 17 Fri: Dhaniram Chaudhary became chairman of Tharu Kalyankarini Sabha in the 21st general assembly held in Birtamode, Jhapa.

2015 June 9 : 16-points agreement between four major political parties (Congress, UML, Maoist and Forum-Democratic). They also agreed on 8 state model. But boundaries are not yet finalized. Maoist led 30-party alliance split. (see DOCUMENT here)



Tharu Movement of 2015

2015 Aug 8: 4 major parties (NC,UML, Maosits and  MJF loktantrik led by Tharu leader Gachhadar) made agreement on 6 state model. (see)

2015 Aug 8: After 4 party agreement, Tharu people on western terai started protest demanding Tharuwan/ Thruhat state. After Thru protest several nationwide protest happened in following weeks with different demands. They include: Tharuwan/ Tharuhut demand, Akhanda Sudurpaschim, One Karnali pradesh (including present Karnali zone), Akhanda Baglung district (not to divide present baglung district), Akhanda Madhya-paschim (undivided mid-west region) etc.

2015 Aug 21 Friday: After several nationalwide protests in two weeks 3 major parties now agreed on a new 7 states model accommodating Akhanda Sudurpaschim, One Karnali pradesh (including present Karnali zone) & Akhanda Baglung district. The 4th party from earlier agreement MJF-democratic opposed the agreement.

2015 Aug 21: Supporters of Tharuhat and undivided Far-West clashed in Durgauli. Some shops and office of Tharu Kalyankarini Sabha were vandalized.

2015 Aug 24 - the Tikapur Incident: 7 policemen and a child killed during violent protest organized by Tharuhat/ Tharuwan united front in Pashuhaat area, Ward Number-6, Tikapur, Kailali. Killed policemen were SSP Laxman Neupane, Inspectors Balaram Bishta and Keshav Bohora and Constables Laxman Khadka and Lokendra Chand of Nepal Police and APF Head Constables Ram Bihari Chaudhary and Lalit Saud. Tek Bahadur Saud, a two-year old son of APF Assistant Head Constable Netra Bahadur Saud was also killed by the protestors. 46 police personnel were also injured in the attack.Thousands of protesters, wielding axes, spears, khukuris, sickles, catapults, from various villages gathered in Tikapur where they encircled the security personnel and assaulted them. There were 4,000 protestors at the site where incident happened. Following the incident, emergency meeting of the National Security Council in Kathmandu decided to deploy the army in Kailali, Sarlahi and Rautahat districts. (himalayantimes, kathmandupost, republica)

2015 Sep 16: Police filed murder case against 21 persons for their alleged involvement in Tikapur incident. Those indicted include MJF-Democratic central committee member Laxman Tharu and Tharu Kalyankari Sabha president and Tharuhat/Tharuwan Struggle Committee district coordinator Lahuram Chaudhary. Police had arrested 39 persons in connection to the incident. Of them, 18 were released on general date. DPO spokesperson said police is still searching for other persons involved in the incident. (link)

Sep 16, 2015 Wed :  Nepal's Constitution 2072 B.S. is endorsed by the constituent assembly meeting by 2/3 majority today. Out of total 598 current CA members 507 voted for YES (84.78%), 25 Voted No and 66 were absent. 25 members who voted NO were the leaders of RPP-Nepal, a hindu royalist party. Gopal Dahit and Ganga Chaudhari Satgauwa from Tharuhat Terai Party Nepal and Rukmani Chaudhari from Sanghiya Loktantrik Rastriya Manch Tharuhat, 13 members from Gachhadar's MJF Loktantrik were among the absentees.

2015 Sep 20: President Dr. Ram Baran Yadav promulgated the Constitution of Nepal, 2015 which declared Nepal a federal democratic republic.

2016 Sep 17: Resham Chaudhari met PM Prachanda during his visit in Delhi, India and requested for presidential pardon.

2017 June 16: Resham Chaudhari, one of the main accused of Tikapur incident, received compensation of 1 crore 74 lakh rupees from the government. Similarly, lawmaker Janak Chaudhary receitec Rs 52 lakh. Out of the  46 accused in the Tikapur killings, 24 are currently in detention while the remaining 22 including Resham Chaudhary are still at large. (link)

2017 Dec 12: Resham Lal Chaudhari, alleged prime conspirator of Tikapur carnage, elected for Parliament from Kailali-1 with a huge margin. RJP-N candidate Chaudhary, who is on police’s wanted list, got 34,341 votes while his close contender Madan Kumari (Garima) Shah of UML garnered 13,406 votes followed by the Ishwari Neupane of Nepali Congress with 11,203 votes.(link)
In Kailali-5 Laxman Tharu, another accused, contested from Prison but lost.

2017 Dec 24: Supreme Court has decided not to provide Resham Chaudhari's proxy his election victory certificate as he is still wanted by police. (link)


Leaders: Laxman Tharu(Maoist>TJSC), Kishor Kumar Biswas, Raj Kumar Lekhi (TKS/ NEFIN), Dhaniram Chaudhari (TKS), Bishram Mahato(TKS Chitwan), Gopal Dahit(MJF-D), Resham Lal Chaudhari (Royalist>Sadbhawana-rMahato>RJPN), Bijaya Kumar Gachhadar (NC>MJF>MFJ-D>NLF>NC), Bhanuram Chaudhari (TTPN), 

Organizations: Tharu Kalyankarini Sabha (TKS) / Tharu Welfare Society (TWS), Nepal Loktantrik Tharu Sangh, Tharu Rastriya Mukti Morcha, Tharuhat Autonomous State  Council (TASC), Backward Society Education (BASE), Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities (NEFIN), Tharuhat National Council (TNC), Joint Tharuhat Struggle Committee (JTSC / TJSC)

Political Parties: Tharuhat Tarai Party Nepal (led by Bhanuram Chaudhari, Gopal Dahit, Ganga Chaudhari), Sanghiya Loktantrik Rastriya Manch (Tharuhat) (led by Rukmani Chaudhari), Nepal Democratic Tharu Association (wing of UML),


External links:

Tags: नेपाल आदिवासी जनजाति महासंघ, kamailya, haliya, bonder labor, Decreased malaria morbidity,