1201 AD: Aridev Malla became 1st malla king of Nepal Valley marking the start of Malla era in central Nepal.
1206-1227 AD: rule of Genghis Khan who founded Mongol Empire in Asia. Later his grandson Kublai Khan (1260-1294) founded Yuan dynasty in China.
1240-1354 AD: Mangol Empire and Yuan dyansty in China ruled Tibet.
1261: Araniko leading 80 Nepali artists went to China in the request of emperor Kublai khan.
1296-1316 AD: Alauddin Khalji ruled Delhi Sultanate with which Khas Empire of Western Nepal shared their southern Border.
1324 AD: Last king of Simarungarh (in South East Nepal) Harisingh Dev defeated by sultan Gayasudin Tuglak of Delhi Sultanate. King Harisingh dev left for Nepal valley with family for refuge.
1350 AD: Sultan of Bengal Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah (wiki) attacked and destroyed Kathmandu valley.
1357 AD: King Prithvi Malla of Khas empire erected stone pillar in Dullu, western Nepal maintaining the family tree of khas dynasty on it.
Prithvi Malla's stone monument written in Devnagari scriptLocated in Dullu, State 6, Dailekh, Nepal
1380s-early 1400s: Khas empire of western Nepal started to disband as kingdoms of Doti (1382), Dullu (1392), Jajarkot-Juktipur (1398), Salyan (1418) etc were established which ultimately turned in to Baaise and Cahubisi kingdoms, some 40 small principalities in Karnali, Very and Gandaki regions.
1428 AD: Yakshya Malla (aka Jayayakshya) became the last malla king of united Nepal valley.
1482 AD: united malla kingdom of central Nepal split. Ratna Malla, younger son of Yakshya malla, became King of Kantipur (present day Kathmandu) and Raya Malla became king of Bhaktapur.
1498 AD: Vasco De Gama arrived in India from Portugal.
1503-06 AD: Leonardo Da Vinci created the famous painting of Mona Lisa.
1553 AD: United kingdom of Palpa in central & eastern Nepal split. Kingdom of Makwanpur established in south eastern Nepal led by King Lohang Sen.
1559 AD: Drabya Shah became the 1st king of Principality of Gorkha (a small kingdom in Chaubisi region) establishing the "Shah house".
1564-1616 AD: life span of William Shakespeare, the greatest writer in English literature.
1609 AD: King Lohang Sen of Makwanpur also became king of Bijayapur in eastern Nepal effectively controlling whole east and south central Nepal.
1612 AD: British East India Company made trade agreement with Mughal emperor Jahangir setting the first proper foothold in India.
1644-1922: Qing dynasty ruled China, also annexed Tibet into China in 1720.
1661: Jesuit Fathers Johann Grueber and Albert d'Orville reported that they reached "Cadmendu", the capital of Nepal kingdom during their travel from Tibet to India.
Unification of Nepal
1743 AD: King Prithvi Narayan Shah, the Great ascended to the throne of Principality of Gorkha.
1744 AD: King PN Shah started his unification process with the first attack on Nuwakot.
1768 AD: Gorkha conquered Kathmandu marking the foundation of united kingdom of Nepal. King Shah moved his capital city from Gorkha to Kathmandu.
1776 AD: USA declared independence from Great Britain.
1788-1792 AD: first Nepal-Tibet, China war. Treaty of Betrawati signed.
1804-14 AD: Napoleon Bonaparte ruled French Empire.
1814-16: Anglo-Nepal war.
1816 Mar 4: Treaty of Sugauli signed between Nepal and East India company.