Timeline of Nepalese Civil War (1996-2006) and Peace process (2006-2015)

Apr 1, 1986: CPN-Mashal (नेकपा मशाल) (future maoist) made a failed attempt to launch an armed uprising in known as Sector Incident (सेक्टर काण्ड).
Nov 19-20, 1990: CPN-4th and CPN-Mashal united to form CPN-Unity Centre.
May 12, 1991: Samyukta Jana Morcha, political front of CPN UC led by Dr Baburam Bhattarai took part in the general election, won 9 seats and became 3rd largest party in the parliament.
1994: Hardliner fraction of CPN-UC split led by Puspa Kamal Dahal and Baburam Bhattarai.
1995: Operation Romeo lunched by Nepal police to tackle possible civil war
Feb 4, 1996: Dr Baburam Bhattarai submitted 40-point demands to the Sher Bd Deuba government. 
Feb 13, 1996 (B.S. 2052 Falgun 1): CPN (Maoist) launched Civil War

May, 1998: Operation Kilo Sera 2 lunched by Police bring down Maoists (until 1999)
May 2, 1999: Maoists killed 2 police before parliament election they called boycott
Feb 22, 2000: 19 Maoists were killed in search operation in Rukum following that maoists killed 15 police
Sep 15, 2000: government reported that Maoist insurgency killed over 1,400 people the last 4 years including 209 police personnel, 979 maoist and 249 civilians
Sep 24, 2000 : Maoists attacked Dunai, Dolpa.
Dec 20, 2000: Maoist started forming their ‘people’s governments’.
Dec 26, 2000: rioting began over rumor of Hritik Roshan
Jan 22, 2001: First Armed Police Force (APF) ordinance issued to create a new paramilitary force by Government to deal with maoists.
Feb 2001: Prachanda became chairman of Maoist party. They proclaimed Prachanda-Path
2001: Maoist founded People's Liberation Army (PLA), Prachanda as chief
June 1, 2001: Royal massacres. June 4: Gyanendra became new King.

July 23, 2001 : Government and Maoists announced ceasefire. (Jul 22 Sher b Deuba became new PM). Four days later, Maoist leaders Krishna Bahadur Mahara, Agni Prasad Sapkota and Top Bahadur Rayamajhi come to Kathmandu for talks with the government. Talks failed.
Aug/Sep 2001:  Maoists formed central people's government led by Dr Baburam Bhattarai.They also initiated the idea of 9 racial provinces.
Oct 24, 2001: Government formed a new paramilitary force "Armed Police Force" to fight with Maoists.
Nov 23, 2001: Maoists attacked Nepal Army for the first time. In Dang attack 14 soldiers and 9 police officers were dead. Same night they attacked Syangya- 14 policemen killed. They also attacked airport in Surkhet.
Nov 25, 2001: Maoists attacked Salleri, Solukhumbu along with Phaplu airport, District police office and CDO quarter.
Nov 26, 2001: Government declared state of emergency and mobilized Nepal Army.
Nov 29, 2001: Maoist's bombed Coca-cola factory as an "anti-american" war. Also in Jan & Apr 2002.
Feb 17, 2002: Maoists attacked Mangalsen, Achham and killed 138 people including senior government officials.
Feb 23, 2002: Nepal Army murdered 35 workers involved in construction of Kotwada Airport in Kalikot district in search of Maoists.
May 22, 2002 (२०५९ जेठ ८):  King Gyanendra, acting on the advice of Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba, dissolved the Parliament and ordered new elections.
May 27, 2002: Maoist's made unsuccessful attack in Khara, Rukum. About 150 Maoist dead.
Sep 22, 2002: Nepali Congress party broken. Sher B Deuba registered a new party NC Democratic.

Oct 4, 2002 (२०५९ असोज १८): King Gyanendra dismissed the country's elected government and took control of government in his hand.
Oct 11, 2002: King Gyanendra appointed Lokendra Bahadur Chanda as new PM.
Jan 25, 2003: Maoists killed APF chief Krishna Mohan Shrestha
Jan 29, 2003: Government announced a cease-fire

Apr, May, 2003: Peace talk between Chand Government and Maoist held
Apr 30, 2003: US put Maoist & Samyukta Janamorcha in terrorist list
June 5, 2003: King appointed Surya Bahadur Thapa as PM.
Aug 17, 2003: Army killed 21 maoists in Dada Kateri Chaur, Doramba in Ramechhap District.
Aug 2003: Ceasefire collapsed (In 2005 the major responsible was sentenced to 2 years in prison)
Aug 20, 2003: CP Gajurel arrested in Chennai, India
Oct 31, 2003: US Department of State designated the CPN (Maoist) as a terrorist organization under Executive Order 13224
Mar 30, 2004: India arrested Nepali maoist leader Mohan Baidhya 'Kiran' from Siliguri.
June 3, 2004: King Gyanendra appointed Sher B Deuba as PM.
July 26, 2004: Jay Krishna Goit split from the Maoist party to from JTMM
Aug 11, 2004: Maoists buried Radio Nepal journalist Dekendra Thapa alive in Dailekh.
(In Dec 7, 2014 Dailekh District Court awarded punishment to the five accused as imprisonment of one and half to two years)
Aug end 2004: 12 Nepalis beheaded in Iraq; nationwide protest in Nepal

Oct 20-28, 2004: 9 days ceasefire by Government and Maoists to celebrate Dashain Festival
Nov 21, 2004: Army killed 66 Maoist in Pandon Village, Kailali (suffering 10 losses)
Nov 2003: Government initiated the concept of "Unified Command" to effectively mobilize all three security forces of Nepal under the command of Nepal Army. Ended July 2006.
Jan 31, 2005: Maoist politburo meeting in Lawang, Rukum decided to take disciplinary action on Baburam Bhattarai, Dinanath Sharma and Hisila Yami.

Feb 1, 2005 (२०६१ माघ १९): King Gyanendra made a Coup. Dismissed PM Sher Bd Deuba again.
Feb 28, 2005: 50 maoists and 4 army killed in Bardiya.
Mar 4, 2005: Government forces killed at least 30 Maoist in Arghakhanchi.
Apr 7, 2005: Maoist made second unsuccessful attack in Khara, Rukum. 72 rebels dead.
May 9, 2005: Army killed 26 Maoist who attacked a military base at Bandipur. 4 gov force lost
Jun 6, 2005: Maoists killed 39 innocent passengers(including 3 Army soldiers) setting a public bus in Land mine at Badarmude, Madi, Chitawan District. 72 other injured.
July 28, 2005: Maoist party took back the disciplinary action taken on Baburam Bhattarai, Dinanath Sharma and Hisila Yami.
July 25, 2005: Major political parties rejected Maoist's appeal for talks to plan joint opposition to King Gyanendra saying saying Maoists should stop killing civilians first.
Sep 3, 2005 : Maoist announced a unilateral ceasefire for 3 months but the Royal govt rejected

Sep/Oct 2005:  Maoist's Central Committee meeting held at Chunwang in Rukum which is popularly known as "Chunwang Baithak". They adopted democratic republic as new policy instead of single party people's republic. (other meetings: Kharipati 2008, Palungtar 2010)
Nov 22, 2005: 12-Point agreement between Maoist and 7-party alliance in Delhi
Jan 2006 : Maoists ended the ceasefire.
Mar 13, 2006: Royal Government offered amnesty and money to Maoists who surrender in the next three months.
Apr 6, 2006: 19-days people's movement started by Seven Party Alliance.
Apr 19, 2006: Indian PM Manmohan Singh sent Karan Singh as his special envoy to Nepal.
Apr 21, 2006: after weeks of massive protests and increasing international pressure King Gyanendra called on the seven main political parties to name a prime minister as soon as possible and vowed to return power to the people but people's movement continued. (see on youtube)
Apr 24, 2006 (२०६३ बैशाख ११ ) : 19-days democracy movement succeed. King Gyanendra reinstated disbanded parliament through message on national television shortly before midnight. (see on youtube). 
Apr 25, 2006: Girija Prasad Koirala, leader of people's movement, became new PM.

May 3, 2006 : Government declared a cease-fire and removed terrorist title from Maoists
May 11, 2006 : Government released 2 top Maoist leaders Matrika Yadhav and Suresh Ale Magar from jail dropping murder charge
May 18, 2006 (२०६३ जेठ ४): Parliament reduced the power of King and declared Nepal secular state. Some compare this action as Magna-carta of Nepal.
Jun 13, 2006: Govt freed 190 Maoist from jail after withdrawing terrorism cases against them
Jun 16, 2006: Maoist supremo Prachanda became public in Kathmandu
July 3, 2006: Maoists announced to close their "People's courts" in response of government's decision to disband "Unified Command", a concept to use all 3 government forces under army command.
Aug 9, 2006: Government and Maoists wrote separate letters to UN asking for assistance.
Nov 2006: Maoist re-activated its youth organization YCL.
Nov 21, 2006: Peace Accord signed between Government and CPN Maoist

After Peace Agreement

Jan 15, 2007 (B.S. 2063 Magh 1): New interim constitution adopted. Maoists got 84 seats in the 329-member interim legislature.
Jan 23, 2007: UN security council unanimously passed resolution 1740 (2007) and sent United Mission to Nepal (UNMIN) for one year starting today, with a mandate to monitor the ceasefire and assist in the election of a Constituent Assembly.
Mar 21, 2007: Gaur carnage: 27 people killed in violent clash between MJF and Maoist's Madheshi Rastriya Mukti Morcha in Gaur, Hajmaniya and Mudhbaliya area.
Apr 1, 2007: Maoist entered in interim collation government led by Girija Prasad Koirala. But left government in Sep.
Dec 2007: Maoists rejoined the government after parliament approved abolition of monarchy.
Feb 2008 : Madheshi groups called a strike demanding autonomy, Government made a deal

Apr 10, 2008: 1st Constituent Assembly election, CPN Maoist became largest party
May 28, 2008: 1st meeting of CA abolished the King, Nepal formally became republic.
Aug 18, 2008: Prachanda sworn in as a Prime Minister of Nepal
Sep 12, 2008: Nanda Kishor Pun (Pasang) became new chief of PLA  
May 4, 2009: Prachanda resigned (remained in office till another PM in May 25)
May 25, 2009: Madhav Kumar Nepal became new pm. Resigned June 30, 2010.
March 20, 2010: Girija Prasad Koirala died.
July 21, 2010 - Nov 4 2010: *16 times PM election. Prachanda vs Ram Chandra Paudel.
Jan 14, 2011: United Mission to Nepal (UNMIN) returned from Nepal.
Feb 6, 2011: Jhala Nath Khana became new PM with the collation of UML, Maoist, Forum etc.
Aug 14, 2011: Jhalanath Khanal resigned acknowledging his failure to advance peace process and agree with the opposition for the new constitution,
Aug 29 2011: Baburam Bhattarai became PM with collation of Maoist and Madheshi front, remained until Mar 14, 2013

Nov 2011: Process of integration of PLA into Nepal Armed forces started.
May 28, 2012: First Constituent Assembly dissolved.
Nov 2012: Prachanda got slapped in public by an ordinary citizen
2012:  US Department of State delisted the CPN(M) as a terrorist organization.
Mar 14, 2013: Chief justice Khil Raj Regmi became PM for general election.
Aug 26, 2013: 70 ex-maoist fighters joined Nepal Army. Total 1,460 of the 19,600 fighters registered by the United Nations after the war have joined the army so far [total fighters initially checked in by UNMIN 32,250 - absent in verification 8,640 - rejected by UNMIN 4,008 - verified fighters 19,602 / registered weapons 3,428]

Nov 19, 2013 : Second CA election, Maoist party became 3rd. Congress and UML became 1st and 2nd respectively.

Sep 20, 2015: President Dr. Ram Baran Yadav promulgated the Constitution of Nepal in the last meeting of Constituent Assembly implementing the maoist agenda of republic and federal Nepal.

May 14, June 28 & Sep 18, 2017: Maoists took part in 3-phase local election making alliance with Nepali congress and became 3rd largest party after UML & NC.

Oct 31, 2017: Maoist leader Balkrishna Dhungel arrested and sent to prison to serve over 12 years jail time in the criminal case of murdering Ujjan Kumar Shrestha in 1998.

Nov 26 & Dec 7, 2017: Maoists took part in 2-phase Federal & Provincial elections making alliance with CPN UML and became 3rd largest party in the federal parliament and became 2nd & 3rd largest party in the 4 & 2 state assemblies.

FOR more STORY click below:-
  1. Timeline of the new Constitution of Nepal 2072 B.S.
  2. Timeline of Democratic and Republic Nepal (1990 - present)
  3. List of Proposed federal structures
  4. Post war justice of Nepal

Background (Formation, Unification & Splits of the party)

Sep 15, 1949: The first Communist party of Nepal (CPN) was founded. The founding General Secretory was Puspa Lal Shrestha. This is the party from which all of the present and defunct communist parties in Nepal (more than 20) claim their root.

1954 : 1st convention, Manmohan Adhikari as General Secretory
1957: 2nd convention, Keshar Jung Rayamajhi as General Secretory
Apr 1962: One section of party convened 3rd party assembly & elected Tulsi Lal Amatya as the new general secretory. Other section did not approve this. After this CPN became two parties CPN-Amatya & CPN-Rayamajhi.

Sep 15, 1974: CPN 4th Convention was organized and formed new party by Mohan Bikram Singh, Nirmal Lama, Mohan Baidhya, Chitra Bahadur KC etc. The party was known as CPN 4th.

1981: A new party CPN-Marxist–Leninist–Maoist (MLM) was established by Krishna Das Shrestha which merged with CPN-Maoist in 2009.

1983: CPN-Masal (नेकपा मसाल) formed out of CPN-4th by Mohan Bikram Singh who was followed by Chitra Bahadur K.C., C.P. Gajurel, Mohan Baidhya, as well as other future Maoist leaders like Pushpa Kamal Dahal and Baburam Bhattarai.

Nov 1984: Underground party CPN-Mashal (नेकपा मशाल) formed out of CPN-Masal (ने.क.पा. मसाल). Mohan Baidhya became general secretory. Other notable members were Chitra Bahadur K.C., Pushpa Kamal Dahal, C.P. Gajurel, Dev Gurung etc. Baburam Bhattarai stayed in the Masal.

CPN-Mashal adopted Maoism as their ideology.  They made a failed attempt to launch an armed uprising in Apr 1, 1986 known as  Sector Incident (सेक्टर काण्ड). After Sector incident failed, Puspa Kamal Dahal (Biswas later Prachanda) became party general secretory.

Nov 19-20, 1990: CPN-4th and CPN-Mashal united to form CPN-Unity Centre. Soon after that Baburam Bhattarai left CPN-Masal and joined CPN-Unity Centre.

1991: Sanyukta Janamorcha Nepal (SJM) was established as a mass front by CPN-UC, Nepal Workers Peasants Organisation (NWPP) and CPN-MLM. Baburam Bhattarai was the chairman of the front. Soon after that MLM and  NWPP left the front. In 1991 election SJM won 9 seats and became 3rd largest party in the parliament.

1994: CPN-UC spitted. Hard-line fraction (future CPN Maoist) led by Prachanda & Baburam formed their own Sanyukya Janamorcha (SJM). They used the same party name CPN-UC until 1995.

Nov 15, 1994: Old SJM (led by Nirmal Lama) participated the parliament election but did not win any seat. In 1999 election they won 1 seat.

1995: Hardliner fraction of CPN-UC (led by Prachanda & Baburam Bhattarai) adopted new party name CPN Maoist

Feb 13, 1996: CPN-Maoist launched Civil War. (DETAIL TIMELINE of Civil War see below)

2002: CPN-UC and CPN-Masal merged to form CPN-UC-Masal. Mohan Bikram Singh became its first general secretory. Previous general sectaries of two parties were Narayan Kaji Shrestha (Prakash) - CPN(UC) and Ram Singh Shris - CPN (Masal)

July 10,2002 : Samyukta Janamorchha and Rastriya janamorcha, mass fronts of former CPN-UC and CPN-Masal, united to form Janamorcha Nepal.

2006 : Janamorcha Nepal was in 7 party alliance for Democracy movement in April. But after the success of movement Janamorcha Nepal and their mother party CPN-UC-Masal spitted in 4 parts.
(1) Bijaya Kumar and Narendra Man KC formed CPN (2006) but soon after this they merged with CPN Maoists.
(2) Mohan Bikram Singh formed a parallel underground CPN(UC–M), taking with him 3 MPs of Janamorcha Nepal (new party became Rastriya Janamorcha led by Chitra Bahadur K.C.) In March 2007 they held 7th convention and renamed party as Communist Party of Nepal (Masal)
(3) Ram Singh Shris splitted with 2 MPs but in 2007 merged with CPN-Unified which later merged with CPN (2013) in Apr 2013.
(4) Original Janamorcha led by Amik Sherchan with original CPN-UC-Masal led by Narayan Kaji Shrestha (Prakash)

Apr 10, 2008 : In the 1st Constituent Assembly election old Janamorcha Nepal won 8 and new Rastriya Janamorcha (Chitra Bahadur K.C.) won 4 seats.

Oct 2008: Janamorcha Nepal merged with Maoist along leaders like Amik Sherchan, Lilamani Pokhrel, Giriraj Mani Pokharel etc.

Jan 2009: Mother party of Janamorcha Nepal CPN-UC-Masal merged with CPN Maoist to form Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) along with leaders like Narayankaji Shrestha "Prakash".

May 19, 2016 (Jeth 6, 2073BS): 10 maoist parties of Nepal including the major "United Communist party of Nepal (Maoist)" have been united together to formed a new party named "Communist party of Nepal (Maoist Centre). New maoist have said to form 699 membered convention committee to organize party's general convention in near future. Supremo Prachanda has requested to one major splinter group led by Dr Baburam Bhattarai to comeback to the original party.

Splits of CPN Maoist

2004 July 26 : Janatantrik Terai Mukti Morcha (JTMM) led by Jai Krishna Goit split from CPN Maoist
> Aug 2006 : JTMM (Jwala Singh) broke away from JTMM (Goit)
2009 : Matrika Prasad Yadav broke from CPN Maoist
2012 : CPN-Maoist led by Mohan Baidhya (Kiran) split from UCPN Maoist
>2014: CPN (Maoist) led by Netra Bikram Chanda (Biplab) split from Kiran's CPN-Maoist
>2016 May 14: majority members of CPN-Maoist led by Mohan Baidhya have decided to merge with original maoist party UCPN (Maoist) except Baidhya himself.
>2016 May 19: UCPN maoist gets united with other 10 small maoist parties to form a new party "CPN (Maoist Centre)"

Naya Shakti 
Sep 26, 2015: Senior Maoist leader and former PM Dr. Baburam Bhattarai quit the UCPN Maoist party. He is believed to be opening new political pafrty soon.
Nov 3, 2015: 45 central leaders of ucpn maoist including devendra paudel, hisila yami, ramchandra jha etc resigned from the party in favor for Dr. Baburam Bhattarai's new party.
Jun 12, 2016: Baburam bhattarai's new party "Naya Shakti, Nepal" formally announced its establishment in a big mass of over 15,000 people in Dashrath stedium, kathmandu.