Timeline of Rana era in Nepal

This article covers all important events during 104 years long Rana dynasty of Prime-Ministership in Nepal lasted from 1848 to 1951. (*being updated)


1817 Jun 18: Jung Bahadur Kunwar born.

His mother Ganesh Kumari was the was the daughter of Kaji Nain Singh Thapa, sister of PM Mathbarsingh Thapa and niece of PM Bhimsen Thapa. Her Great-Great-Grandfather was Bir Bhadra Thapa, an influential Courtier of King Prithvi Narayan Sah during unification. Her Great-Grandfather was Birbhadra Thapa and Grandfather was Amar Singh Thapa, both influential courtier and military people.

His father Balnarsingh Kunwar (1783 Feb 2-1881 Dec 24) was an member of Royal court of King Rana Bahadur Shah (regin 1777 Nov 17– 1799 March 8). In 1806 Apr 25, Balnarshing killed Sher Bahadur Shah, the murderer of the King Rana Bahadur during a court in retaliation and got huge respect in the Royal court. Bala Narsingha became the Governor of Dhankuta (1828-1832), Dadedhura (1833-1835), and Jumla (1835-1837).

1835: Jung Bahadur Kuwar become Second Lieutenant in the Army.
1840: Jung Bahadur became Captain in the army.
1843 Dec 25: Mathbarsingh Thapa, maternal-uncle of JBR became Prime Minister.
1845 May 17: JBR killed own maternal uncle PM Mathbarsingh by the order of King & Queen.
1845: Jung Bahadur promoted to Major General in the Army.
1845 Sep 23: Fateh Jung Shah became Prime Minister.
1846 Sep 14: Kot massacre in Nepal. 40 people including PM Fateh Jung killed by Jung Bahadur.


1846 Sep 15: Jung Bahadur Kunwar became Prime Minister of Nepal and Commander in Chief of Nepal Army and laid the foundation of Rana dynasty in Nepal.

1848: Jung Bahadur got the title "Rana".
1850 Apr-1851 Feb: JBR visited Britain, France and Egypt.

1855 Apr-1856 Mar: Nepal-Tibet war. Nepal victory and Thapathali treaty signed which provisioned Tibet to pay tribute Rs.10,000 annually to Nepal.

1856 Aug 1 - 1857 May 25: Bam Bahadur Kuwar, brother of Jung Bahadur became Prime Minister of Nepal.

1856 Aug 6: JBR declared himself as the King of Lamjung & Kaski (Minor ex-kingdoms inside Nepal) and granted the title "Sri 3" symbolizing himself just under the King of Nepal "Sri 5".

1857 May 10- 1858 Nov 1: Sepoy Mutiny aka Indian Rebellion of 1857 happened which established  direct British Rule in present day India, Pakistan & Bangladesh known as British Raj ending the rule of British East India Company.

1859: JBR gave political asylum to Begum Hazrat Mahal, queen of Awadh, wife of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah and her 10-year-old son Birjis Qadr after the mutiny.

1860: Nepal got 4 westernmost terai districts (Banke, Bardiya, Kailali & Kanchanpur) back for helping British Raj during mutiny.

1877 Feb 25: Ranodip Singh (brother of JBR) became 2nd Rana Prime Minister.
1882 Jan: Chautariya Colonel Ambar Bikram Shah (son Chautaria Pushkar Shah) and his Gorkhali aide attempted a unsuccessful coup d'├ętat at Teku. All of them got killed by Ranas.

1885 Nov 22: Bir Shumsher "Jung Bahadur Rana" (nephew of JBR, son of Dhir Shamsher) became 3rd Prime Minister after successful coup d'├ętat "known as 42 sale parba" by 17 sons of Dhir Shamsher, brother of JBR and Ranodip singh. To receive legacy of Jung Bahadur Rana they used his initials "JBR" as their name suffix. Leadership of Rana dynasty came to the 2nd generation of JBR.

1889 Jul: Bir Shumsher established "Bir Hospital" in Kathmandu which now works as a one of the largest government hospital in Nepal.
1892: Bir Shamsher established "Durbar High School", the first modern school in Nepal.

1901 Mar 5:  Dev Shumsher "JBR" (4th son of Dhir Shamsher) became 4th Rana PM.
1901 May: Dev Shamsher launched "Gorkkhapatra", the first newspaper in Nepal, which now serves as the government's main publication.

1901 Jun 27: Chandra Shumsher (6th son of Dhir Shamsher) became 5th Rana PM.
1904 Apr 20: Marriage of Kaiser Shamsher JBR (s/o Chandra Shamsher JBR) and Princess Lakshmi Rajya Lakshmi Devi (d/o King Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah). Chandra Shamsher had declared her Crown Princess and heiress to the throne.

1911 Dec: King George V and Queen Mary visited south Nepal during their visit to attend Delhi Durbar of 1911.
1911 Dec 11: King Prithvi Bir Bikarm died, Tribhuvan became the King of Nepal.
1920: Chandra Shamsher banned "Sati Pratha" in Nepal.
1923 Dec 21: Nepal–Britain Treaty of 1923 signed in Singha Durbar, Kathmandu. This treaty is considered as the main achievement of Rana rule. This treaty registered in League of Nations in 1925.

1929 Nov 26: Bhim Shamsher (son of Dhir Shamsher) became 6th Rana PM.

1932 Sep 1: Juddha Shumsher (son of Dhir Shamsher) became 7th Rana PM.
1934 Jan 15: 8 Richter scale earthquake hit Nepal and Bihar region of British Raj killing as many as 10,000 people. 1st Dharahara built in 1824 completely destroyed but 2nd dharahara built in 1832 survived. 2015 earthquake destroyed 2nd tower as well.
1936 (1993BS): Judda Shamsher implemented social custom to reduce hindu funeral ritual from 45 days to 13 days.


Decline of Rana Era

1939: Nepal's first political party "Nepal Prajaparishad" formed to revolt against Rana dynasty in Nepal by Tanka Prasad Acharya, Dharma Bhakta Mathema, Dashrath Chand, Sukra Raj Shastri, Gangalal Shrestha, Chudaprasad Sharma, Govinda Prasad Upadhya(Poudyal), Puskar Nath Upreti, Mukunda Nath Rimal, Bal Bahadur Pandey, Druba Prasad Dawade, Fadindra Nath Satyal, Hari Krishna Shrestha, Chakra Bahadur Khatri etc.

1940 Oct: Rana government arrested almost all members of the PrajaParishad.

1941 Jan 19: Rana government declared death penalty against Dharma Bhakta Mathema, Dashrath Chand, Sukra Raj Shastri and Gangalal Shrestha and jail sentences to many members. And after this PrajaParishad was effectively dissolved.

1945 Nov 29:  Padma Shumsher (nephew of Judda Shamsher, son of Bhim Shamsher) became 8th Rana PM. Leadership of Rana dynasty came to the 3rd generation of JBR.

1946 Jan 25-26: "Nepali National Congress" was founded in Bhawanipur, India. Imprisoned Tanka Prasad Acharya (from Nepal Prajaparishad) elected as president and B. P. Koirala elected as acting-president.

1947 Jun 11: First ever election in Nepal held by Rana regime as in all 21 wards of Kathmandu municipality. Total 68,118 male above 21 years were eligible to vote.

1947 March 13: National Congress started nationwide demostration against Rana regime.

1947 March: BP Koirala & Girija P Koirala arrested while entering Nepal.

1948 Jan 16: Rana PM Padma Shamsher promulgated the first constitution of Nepal which would implement from 1948 Apr 1.

1948 Apr 30: Mohan Shamsher (son of Chandra Shamsher, cousin of Padma Shamsher) became 9th Rana PM as Padma Shamsher resigned.

1948 May 1: Mohan Shamsher banned new constitution and National Congress.

1948 Aug 4: "Nepali Democratic Congress" founded by Mahendra Bikram Shah.

1948 Nov: BP Koirala again arrested in Kathmandu.

1949 Sep 15: Communist Party of Nepal founded in Culcutta, India. This is the party which majority of 10+ present communist parties in Nepal claim origin from. Founding General secretory was Puspalal Shrestha and members were Nar Bahadur Karmacharya, Niranjan Govinda Baidhya and Narayan Bilas Joshi.

1950 Apr 9: "Nepali Congress" party founded merging Nepali National Congress and Nepali Democratic Congress parties. Martika Prasad Koirala became first president of the party.

1950 Sep 27/28: Convention of Nepali Congress.

Armed Revolution against the Rana Regime

1950 Nov 6: King Tribhuvan took refuse in the Indian Embassy in Kathmandu and Nepali Congress announced armed revolution in Nepal at the same day.

1950 Nov 7: PM Mohan Shamsher appointed Gyanendra as King.

1950 Nov 10: King Tribhuvan flown to Delhi with family.

1950 Nov 11-12: Congress's Mukti Sena captured Birgunj and established provisional government headed by Tej Bahadur Amatya.
1950 Nov 12: Mukti sena captured Udayapur Gadhi.
1950 Nov 13: Mukti sena led by KI Singh attacked Bhairabha.
1950 Nov 16: Mukti sena captured Rangeli.
1950 Nov 19: Mukti sena captured Haraicha.
1950 Nov 20: KI singh attacked Bhairaba second time. Gov forces recaptured Birgunj.
1950 Nov 24: Indian PM Nehru started mediation in the conflict.
1950 Dec 10-11: Mukti sena captured Dingla & Khotang.
1950 Dec 11: Mukti sena attacked Biratnagar and captured in Dec 23 and started provisional government in Dec 24 headed by KP Koirala.
1950 Dec 14: Mukti sena captured Jhapa.
1951 Jan 16: Nepali Congress agreed on ceasefire as requested by Nehru in Jan 10 but KI Singh continued.
1951 Feb 12: India mediated formal peace agreement between King, Rana & Nepali Congress known as "Delhi Accord".

1951 Feb 15: King Tribhuvan and major leaders of Nepali Congress returned from India after Delhi Agreement with Rana Regime. This day (Falgun 7, 2007) is/was marked as Democracy day in Nepal.


Aftermath
1952 Nov 20: 7th Rana PM Judda Shamsher died in Dehradun, India.
1961 Apr 11: 8th Rana PM Padma Shamsher died.
1967 Jan 6: 9th and last Rana PM Mohan Shamsher died in Banglore, India.