New Federal Structure of Nepal

New constitution of Nepal was promulgated in 2015 Sep 20. According to the new constitution following administrative divisions are be established.

(see also: historical administrative divisions, proposed federal structures)

New States/ Provinces
Official Map of Administrative divisions of Nepal by
Government of Nepal, Survey Department (karma99.com)
7 federal states are formed in Nepal removing old 14 zone and 5 development regions. Old 75 districts are kept as it is (but with much less role). However, 2 districts among them (Nawalparasi & Rukum) are divided and assigned to two different provinces, which effectively made total 77 districts in Nepal. Name and permanent capital city of the provinces will be given by 2/3 majority of the province's legislative.

The new 7 states are as follows :-

State no 1 : Population 4,534,943 - Area 25,905 sq km - districts 14
Possible name: Sagarmatha
Temporary Capital : Biratnagar

1. Taplejung 2. Panchthar 3. Ilam 4. Sankhuwasabha 5. Terhathum 6. Dhankuta 7. Bhojpur 8. Khotang 9. Solukhumbu 10. Okhaldhunga 11. Udayapur 12. Jhapa 13. Morang 14. Sunsari

State no 2: Population 5,404,145 Area 9,661 km.² - districts 8
Possible Name: Madhesh, Mithila, Central Madhesh
Temporary Capital: Janakpur

1. Saptari 2. Siraha 3. Dhanusha 4. Mahottari 5. Sarlahi 6. Rautahat 7. Bara 8. Parsa

State no 3: Population 5,529,452 Area 20,300 km.² - districts 13
Possible name: Central, Kathmandu
Temporary Capital: Hetauda

1. Dolakha 2. Ramechhap 3. Sindhuli 4. Kavrepalanchok 5. Sindhupalchok 6. Rasuwa 7. Nuwakot 8. Dhading 9. Chitwan 10. Makwanpur 11. Bhaktapur 12. Lalitpur 13. Kathmandu

State no 4: Population 2,413,907 Area 21,504 km.² - districts 10 & one 1/2
Proposed Name: Gandaki (li)
Proposed Capital: Pokhara

1. Gorkha 2. Lamjung 3. Tanahun 4. Kaski 5. Manang 6. Mustang 7. Parbat 8. Syangja 9. Myagdi 10. Baglung 11. Nawalparasi (east of Bardaghat Susta)

State no 5: Population 4,891,025 Area 22,288 km.² - districts 10 and 2 half
Possible name: Lumbini
Temporary Capital: Rupendehi

1. Nawalparasi (west of Bardaghat Susta) 2. Rupandehi 3. Kapilvastu 4. Palpa 5. Arghakhanchi 6. Gulmi 7. Rukum (eastern part) 8. Rolpa 9. Pyuthan 10. Dang 11. Banke 12. Bardiya

Karnali (old name- State no 6): Population 1,168,515 Area 27,984 km.² - districts 9 and half
Name: Karnali (State legislature approved Name & Capital on Feb 24, 2018 - li)
Capital: Birendranagar

1. Rukum (Western part) 2. Salyan 3. Dolpa 4. Jumla 5. Mugu 6. Humla 7. Kalikot 8. Jajarkot 9. Dailekh 10. Surkhet

State no 7: Population 2,552,517 Area 19,539 km.² - districts 9
Possible name: Far West, Mahakali
Temporary Capital: Dhangadhi

1. Bajura 2. Bajhang 3. Doti 4. Achham 5. Darchula 6. Baitadi 7. Dadeldhura 8. Kanchanpur 9. Kailali

Parliament seats (FPTP 60% + Proportional 40%)
Federal > 28+32+33+18+26+12+16= 165 FPTP +110 proportional = 275
State > 56+64+66+36+52+24+32= 330 FPTP + 220 proportional = 550
Max ministries= Federal 15 + State 7 x 7 = total 64
Max state ministers 20% of MPs= 19+21+22+12+17+8+11= 110
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2017 Aug 21: Government decided to conduct Federal & Provincial election in Nov 26 in one phase. Government also decided to split Nawalparasi & Rukum into two districts. With this there are now total 77 districts in Nepal. In Aug 24 Election Commission decided to hold the election of 77 district coordination committees

2017 Aug 30: "Constituency area declaration committee" submitted the report declaring 165 constituencies for the federal parliament and combined 330 constituencies for 7 state parliaments. State 1 to State 7 will have 28, 32, 33, 18, 26, 12 & 16 constituencies respectively for federal parliament. According to the constitution the states parliament constituency will be the double number of federal constituencies.
2017 Aug 30: Government decided to conduct Federal & Provincial election in two phases one in Nov 26 and another in Dec 7 changing the decision of Aug 21 as per the demand of EC.

2017 Sep 9: Government has declared 4 districts Ramechhap, Dhading, Gorkha & East Rukum as Himali- mountain district. They were considered as Pahadi- hill district before.  Similarly East Nawalparasi is now categorized as Inner Madhesh district. (link)

2017 Oct 22: candidates nominated for 37 federal & 74 provincial seats for 1st phase of elections due for Nov 26 in 32 mountain districts.

2017 Nov 2: candidates nominated for 128 federal & 256 provincial seats for 2nd phase of elections due for Dec 7 in 45 hill & plain districts.

2017 Nov 26 & Dec 7: Parliament and 7 state legislatures election held. Left alliance of UML and CPN-M won clear majority in 6 states and became opposition in state no 2 where Madheshi alliance of RJPN & SSFN got the majority.

2018 Jan 17: Gov decided temporary state capitals and appointed Chief of States for all 7 states. State capital are (from state 1 to state 7): Biratnagar, Janakpur, Hetauda, Pokhara, Rupendehi, Surkhet and Dhangadhi. Following this decision protest happened in Dhakuta, Birgunj, Dang, Jumla & Dipayal asking for the capital in their cities.

2018 Jan 21: state legislator of all 7 states took oath in their respective states.

2018 Feb 1: first meeting of the state 3 legislature.
2018 Feb 4: first meeting of state 2,5,6 & 7 legislatures.
2018 Feb 5: first meeting of state 1 & 4 legislatures.
2018 Feb 12: Dormani Paudel (UML) sworn in as the Chief Minister of State no 3. Pradip Bhandari (UML) elected as the Speaker of State 1 legislature and Raj Bahadur Shahi (UML) elected as the Speaker of state 6 legislature.
2018 Feb 14: Saroj Kumar Yadav (RJPN) elected uncontested as the Speaker of State 2 Legislature. Purna Bahadur Gharti (CPNM) elected as the Speaker of State 5 legislature. Netra nath adhikari (CPNM) uncontested as the Speaker of State 4 legislature. Sherdhan Rai(UML) appointed as the chief minister of State 1 by chief of state. he will sworn in tomorrow.
2018 Feb 15: All 7 states got chief minister by today. Also KP Oli became PM of Nepal. Mahendra Bahadur Shahi (CPNM) and Trilochan Bhatta (CPNM) became the the chief minister of state no 6 and 7 respectively.
2018 Feb 20: State 6 adopted the name "Karnali" and the state capital "Birendranagar" by 2/3 majority as per constitutional requirement. Name was voted as 37-0 and capital was voted as 36-1 among current 39 membered state legislature.


Judicial system:-

Supreme Court of Nepal (सर्वोच्च अदालत) will remain as it is as the top of all courts in federal Nepal.

Old 16 Appeal Courts (पुनरावेदन अदालत) have been dissolved and each 7 states now have new High Courts (उच्च अदालत). Judges of old appeal courts are assimilated in to High courts. As of now there are 18 High courts of the state level including 7 high court, 9 high court extension offices and 2 temporary extension high courts.

Old 75 District courts are remained as it was but now work under the High court of their respective states.

(Link1) (link)

Local Level administration:-

According to article 55 of the new constitution there will be 3 levels of governments in Nepal: Federal Level, State level and Local Level each of which will have authority to make laws, annual budget, make plans and implement them under their respective jurisdiction and functional authority.

Now all lands of Nepal is divided into 753 local levels and 7 natural reserves. 7 reserves that do not belong to any local levels are : Shuklaphanta Wildlife reserve & Khaptad National Park of State 7,  Bardiya National Park of State -5, Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve of State-4, Chitwan National Park of State 3-4, Parsa Wildlife reserve of State 2 and Kosi Tappu Wildlife reserve of State 1&2.

* 2015 Sep 20: Constitution was promulgated which has provisioned to form a 'Local area reconstruction commission - LARC' within 6 months to solve the technical issues to declare numbers and boundaries of local area.

* 2016 Mar 13 : Government has formed such commission named "Commission for declaring number and boundary of Village council, municipality and special, protected or autonomous areas" (गाउँपालिका, नगरपालिका तथा विशेष, संरक्षित वा स्वायत्त क्षेत्रको संख्या तथा सीमा निर्धारण आयोग). This commission has been given one year time to do its job.

Old Municipalities and Village Development Committees (VDC) will be replaced by new Nagar-Palika (Municipality) and Gaaun-Palika (Village Council). Currently there are 3,157 VDCs and 217 municipalities. LARC is working to reduce the number of City and villages down between 300 to 1,000. Local government services will be provided through Wards. Village will be divided into 5-21 wards whereas cities will be divided into 9-35 wards.

* 2016 July 19: LARC has proposed to establish total 565 local authorities. There will be minimum 3 and maximum 13 local authorities within a district. (link) New GauPalika must not incorporate more than 8 VDCs in Pahad & 9 VDCs in Terai.
Minumum population a local-level (स्थानीय तह) must have (LARC standard) is as follows:
GaauPalika: Himal 15,000 - Pahad 25,000 - Inner Madhesh 25,000 - Terai 50,000
NagarPalika:Himal 20,000 - Pahad 35,000 - InnerMadhesh & Terai 75,000
NagarPalika in District Headquarter: Pahad 45,000 - InnerMadhesh & Terai 95,000

*2016 Aug 16: Prachanda government has decided to change the "work order" of LARC as most of major political parties including NC and CPN UML have criticized the proposed number (565) of new local-levels for being too low. They said new organization should be based on geography not on population. (link)

*2016 Sep 25 (ashoj 9 Sun): three major political parties (NC,UML,MaoistCenter) have decided to change the basis of reconstruction to current area (iilaka) within districts. this will give about 900 local entities.
*Ashoj 11: Government has officially changed the basis of re-construction sending letter to larc.(link)
*Ashoj 13: members of LARC have became unsatisfied with new changes. larc has already got report from 52 among total 75 districts under old basis. they are discussing about resignation by everybody.(link)
*Ashoj 17: major 3 parties and Larc have come to the agreement. the new basis will be areas-iilaka but the mandatory requirement to have old municipalities are removed. this will give about 700 local area.(link)
*2016 Dec 26: LARC has requested government to receive the report they have made. government is delaying to receive the report fearing if they receive it they will have to implement. (link)
*2017 Jan 6: government has received the final report of LARC. It says there will be 462 Village Committees, 4 Metro, 12 sub-metro and 241 municipalities in Nepal totaling 719 local bodies. (link) (link)
* 2017 Jan 19: Chairman of NC Sher B deuba has demanded the "revision" in LARC report. Before this Madhehi parties also rejected the report. (link)
* 2017 Mar 5: Gov has decided to add 25 local levels making it total 744. Among these new local levels 21 are added in state-2, 2 in Kathmandu district and 1 each in Manang and Bajhang districts.
* 2017 May 14: First phase of local election held in the states 3,4 & 6 being based on newly formed 283 local levels (among total 744).
* 2017 May 22: government decided to add 22 new local levels in terai part of state no1,2,5&7 making 766 total local levels throughout the country. Biratnagar and Birgunj sub-metropolitan cities are also upgraded to Metropolitan city. Similarly 24 villages are upgraded to municipalities. Local Election is due in June 13 in these states. (link: 20170522Local)
* 2017 May 26: Supreme court has ruled not to implement government decision (May22) to increase no of municipalities for now citing it will violate local election act. (link: 20170626Supreme)
* 2017 June 28: Second phase of local election held in 334 local levels of states 1, 5 and 7.
* 2017 Aug: Gov added 9 local levels in State no 2 making total 753. (link) (link)
* 2017 Sep 18: Third phase of Local election held in 136 local levels of State no 2. (LL2, L3, L4)
* 2017 Oct 11: Government has declared 57 local level as "Backward area". Before 5 districts of Karnali and 4 other districts were only considered backward area. Residents of backward area have preference in various government benefits. (link)

District administration:-

Article 220 of the constitution is about District Coordination Committee and District Assembly.

District Assembly (जिल्ला सभा) is the assembly of elected Chief and vice-chiefs of Local Levels inside a district.

Old District Development Committee-DDC ( जिल्ला विकास समिति) are now replaced as District Co-ordination Committee-DCC (जिल्ला समन्वय समिति). Most of executive powers of old DDC are transferred to Local levels so new DCC will work only as a co-ordinating body between Local levels inside the district. DCC will have 9 elected members including at least 3 women members. District Assembly members will vote for their district's DCC members.


Nepal Police:-

Currently Nepal Police has 67,416 posts including 1 IGP, 8 AIG, 34 DIG, 77 SSP, 134 SP, 387 DSP, 1,253 Inspector- 3,645 SI- 6,667 ASI- 12,574 Head constable and 39,374 constable among them Police headquarter has 5,388, Metropolitan police has 10,800, Eastern region has 12,162, Central region has 12,620, western region has 10,805, mid west region has 9,512 and far west region has 6129 police posts. (Link1)

2016 Jun 12: Task force of Nepal police has suggested one central police force and 7 state police forces. according to report :- There will be a central Nepal Police led by "Police Director General" (प्रहरी महानिर्देशक) under the central home ministry and each 7 states will have state police forces led by their State Police Inspector General (प्रहरी महानिरीक्षक) under the respective state home ministries. Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Kathmandu Metropolitan police, National police training center etc will work under central Nepal police. To make coordination between Nepal police and state police forces there will be one "Police affair federal coordination committee" (प्रहरी मामिला संघीय समन्वय समिति) led by federal home minister and its other members will be state home ministers and various gov officers. (Link2)

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2017 July: Government increased the posts of AIG from 3 to 11.
2017 Aug: Responsibilities of 7 states are assigned to AIGs. Now each state jurisdiction has one office of Nepal police. For eg: No 1 State Police Office, Biratnagar (li)

Armed Police Force:-

According to the article 268 of the constitution 37,000+ strong "Armed Police Force" (APF) (सशस्त्र प्रहरी बल) will work under federal government.


Nepal Army:-

2017 Sep: Nepal army has been federalized.  There used to be 6 army divisions (पृतना) (one each in  5 development regions and one division in Kathmandu valley). Now 8 divisions are maintained including one in each 7 states and one in Kathmandu valley.

Old Valley division headquarter is in Kathmandu is as it is and covers the Valley.
Old eastern division (पूर्वी पृतना) in Itahari will cover state 1,
Old central division (मध्य पृतना) in Hetauda will cover state 3 except Kathmandu valley,
Old western division (पश्चिम पृतना) in Pokhara will cover state 4,
Old mid western division (मध्यपश्चिम पृतना) in Surkhet is now renamed as north western division (उत्तरपश्चिम पृतना) and it will cover state 6.
Old far western division (सुदूरपश्चिम पृतना) in Dipayal will cover state 7.

Two new divisions are created for state 2 and state 5.
New mid-eastern division ( मध्यपूर्वी पृतना) in Bhiman, Dhanusha will cover state 2.
New mid-western division (मध्यपश्चिम पृतना) in Butwal will cover State 5.


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