Timeline of Panchayati System in Nepal (1960-1990)

This article primarily covers the Panchayati era of 1960-1990. For era before and after this click : Timeline of First Democracy (1951-1960) and Timeline of Democratic & Republic Nepal (1990-present).


1955 Mar  13 : King Mahendra ascended the throne of Nepal.
1955 Apr 14: Direct rule by King Mahendra removing PM Matrika P Koirala. 
1956 Jan 27: Tanka Pd Acharya appointed PM by King Mahendra.
1957 Feb 25-28: Chinese PM Zhou Enlai visited Nepal.
1957 Jul 26: Dr. K.I. Singh PM by King Mahendra.
1958 May 15: Suberna Samsher Rana (Nepali Congress) appointed PM by King Mahendra.
1959 Feb 12 (2015 Falgun 1 B.S.): King Mahendra promulgated the new constitution.
1959 Feb 18: First general election of Nepal. Congress got 2/3 majority (74 seats out of 109).
1959 May 27: Congress leader BP Koirala became PM.

1960 Dec 15 (B.S. 2017 Poush 1): King Mahendra dissolved the parliament, suspended the constitution, and imprisoned the PM BP Koirala and other leaders.

1960 Dec 26: King Mahendra appointed a council of 5 ministers to help run the administration. Tulsi Giri as PM (1st term)
1961 Jan: UK Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip visited Nepal.
1961 Dec: Nepali congress started armed revolution. 
1962 May (2019 Jeth BS): Election of City-panchayat, Jilla-Panchayat and Anchal-panchayat one after another.
1962 Mar 20 (2018 Chaitra 7): Gram Panchayat (local level) election in 3439 villages. 
1962 Apr 13 (B.S. 2019 Baisakh 1): King Mahendra laid the foundation stone of Mahendra Highway in Gaidakot, Nawalparasi. 
1962 Oct 20-Nov 21: Indo-China war.
1962 Nov 8: Nepali congress called off the armed insurrection and adopted peaceful means for struggle amid Indo-China war.

1962 Dec 16 (B.S. 2019 Paush 1) : King Mahendra promulgated the new Constitution of Nepal (नेपालको संविधान २०१९). The new constitution created 4-tire Panchayeti System (पञ्चायत): Village/Town Panchayat, District Panchayat, Zonal Assembly & National panchayat.

1963 Dec 23: Surya Bahadur Thapa as PM (1st term)

1964 Feb 26: Tulsi Giri as PM (2nd term)
1964 Apr 13:(2021 Baisakh 1-Jeth 15): mid-term election in 3543 village panchayat.

1965 Jan 26: Surya Bahadur Thapa as PM (2nd term)
1967: Back to the Village National Campaign (Gaau Farka, गाउँ फर्क राष्ट्रिय अभियान) was implemented until 1975.
1967 Oct 30-Dec 3: King Mahendra visited USA. 
1968 Oct 30: BP Koirala and many other leaders released from the prison. BP went to India.

1969 Apr 7: Kirti Nidhi Bista as PM. (1st term)
1969: Indian PM Indira Gandhi imposed economic blockade to Nepal. Nepal asked 18 Indian Army checkposts and liaison groups be withdrawn from Nepal asap. 

1970 Apr 13: Gehendra Bahadur Rajbhandari as acting PM.
1970 June 18: All checkeposts of Indian army removed from Nepal.

1971: First Election of National Panchayet held.  Total 125 members; out of them 16 were appointed by the King, 90 were elected by Zonal Assemblies, 15 were elected by class organizations and 4 were elected by the collage graduates. Ram Raja Prasad Singh won from graduate seat. But as a reformist Singh was arrested before the sworn in ceremony. 
1971 Aug 26: Ram Raja Prasad Singh was given royal pardon, then he took the oath of 

1971 Apr 14: Kirti Nidhi Bista as PM (2nd term)
1971 Jun 27: Prince Dipendra, son of then Crown Prince Birendra, born
1971 Nov 1: New National Education System (राष्ट्रिय शिक्षा पद्धतिको योजना २०२८) implemented.  Two districts Chitwan and Kaski was selected for the first phase.

1972 Jan 31: King Mahendra died. Birendra became the new King of Nepal.

1972 Aug 24: BP Koirala started armed revolution against the Panchayati System from India.
1972 Oct: Surya Bahadur Thapa arrested.
1972-1974(BS 2028-2030): Jhapa Andolan (झापा आन्दोलन).
1973 March 4 (2029 Falgun 21): 5 leaders of Jhapa Andolan killed in Sukhani Jungle during their transfer from Chandragadhi Jail to Ilam Jail. KP Oli government declared them as martyr in 2016 March 2 after 43 years.

1973 Jul 16: Nagendra Prasad Rijal as PM
1975 Feb 24: Coronation of King Birendra. He presented the proposal to recognize Nepal as a zone of peace. Eventually recognized by 116 countries except India.
1975 April: Kingdom of Sikkim was annexed by India.

1975 Dec 1: Tulsi Giri as PM (3rd term)
2032 BS: Election of village, city and district panchayats held.
1976 June: King Birendra visited China. Chine supported Nepal's zone of peace proposal.

1976 Dec 30: (BS 2033 Paush 16) BP Koirala returned Nepal adopting Rastriya Melmilap Niti and arrested.

1977 Sep 12: Kirti Nidhi Bista as PM (3rd term).
1978 Dec 26: (2035 Push 11) CPN (ML) founded by CP Mainali, Madhab K Nepal, Ramchandra Yadav, Amrit Bohora, Jhalnath Khanal, Mukunda Neupane, Manilal Rai, Govinda Neupane, Jibraj Ashrit, Modnath Prashit, Madan Bhandari, Bamdev Gautam, Siddinath Gyawali, Netrala Abhagi, Basu Shakya etc. 

 Student Revolution of 1979/80 (छत्तिस सालको बिद्यार्थी आन्दोलन)
1979 Apr 6: Students protested against the execution of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, former PM of Pakistan. remembered as the start of Nepali Revolution of 1979/80.
1979 Apr 23: Ascol clash between police and students. 3 students killed.
1979 Apr 27: people in Hetauda kept a Minister hostage for 10 hours. Police responded, 3 to 17 peoples died. Next day many leaders arrested. BP Koirala was kept under house arrest.
1979 May 2: King Birendra formed 5 member commission to find the solution for the unrest.
1979 May 23: King Birendra made a public declaration for a referendum with secret vote.
1979 May 30: Surya Bahadur Thapa as PM (3rd term)

1980: Namita Sunita Kanda : School girls Namita Bhandari, Sunita Bhandari and Neera Parajuli, were raped and murdered in Pokhara, Nepal. The bodies of all three girls were found in the Gandaki River. The only witness Churamani Adhikari, employee of forest dept was taken to police station but next day he was found dead, later police decleare that as suicide. The Namita-Sunita case was closed inconclusively in 2003.  (L)

1980 May 2: Referendum (२०३६ सालको जनमत संग्रह) on non-partisan panchayat system or a multiparty system. The panchayat system received a slim majority of 54.8%. Voter turnout was 66.9%.

1980 June 1: Surya Bahadur Thapa became PM (3rd term)

1981 May 9:  Second Election of National Panchayat held. Political parties were still banned. In total 140 seats 28 were appointed by King and 112 were to be independently elected. Two pre-panchayat PM also contested. Matrika Prasad Koirala lost the election where K.I. Singh won. NC (Suberna) launched 36 candidates as independents winning by 4 candidates namely Dr. K.I. Singh, Bakhan Singh Gurung, Kashi Nath Gautam and Bhagwat Yadav. PM Thapa elected from Dhankuta but 70% of the candidate unofficially supported by the state lost the election. 

1981 May/June: Chinese PM Zhao Ziyang visited Nepal
1982 May 11 (Baisakh 28-Jeth 4 2039 BS): 4022 village, 29 city and 75 districts panchayat election held.
1982 Jun 16 (Asadh 2, 2039BS): District Panchayat election held.
1982 Jul 21: Leader of Nepali Congress and former PM BP Koirala died.

1983 Jul 12: Lokendra Bahadur Chand as PM (1st term)
1983 Dec 5-10: King Birendra visited USA. (link)
1984 March 19: Chinese President Li Xiannian visited Nepal.
1984 Oct 31: Indian PM Indira Gandhi assassinated. 
1985 May 23: Nepali congress started Civil Disobedience Movement (सत्याग्रह). More than 12000 party workers and sympathizers voluntarily went to jail for several months.
1985 June 20:  Blasts of 1985 (४२ साले बम काण्ड): series of coordinated bomb blasts occurred in Kathmandu and other cities in Nepal. 8 people incl 1 member of panchayati parliament killed. Ramraja Prasad Singh, leader of then Nepal Janabadi Morcha claimed the responsibility. Nepali Congress had to call off its disobedience movement after the blasts. 

1986 Mar 21: Nagendra Prasad Rijal as PM (2nd term)
1986: UK Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip visited Nepal
1986 May 12: Third Election of National panchayat held.  1,548 candidates ran as independents for 112 seats where as 28 were appointed by the king.

1986 Jun 15: Marich Man Singh Shrestha as PM
1987 Mar 21 & 24: (2043 Chaitra 7-10) Local election held in all 33 City & 4,015 Village Panchayats. (link)

Indian official blockade of Nepal in 1989/1990
1987 Dec: India warned Nepal not to purchase antiaircraft gun from China.
1988 March: Nepal made a deal to purchase Chinese weapons.

1988 July 22: Indian PM Rajiv Gandhi sent his foreign minister Natwar Singh to Nepal to urge not to purchase weapons again from China. King Birendra refused.
1988 Aug 21: 6.9 rector scaled earthquake hit Nepal. Over 700 killed.
1989 March 23: Nepal-India Trade and transit treaty expired. India refused to renew. Since then India officially imposed blockade in Nepal until Apr 1990.
1989 Apr, May: Nepal bought fuel from China.
1989 Oct 5: Nepali foreign minister Sailendra Kumar Upadhaya raised the issue of blockade in UN without mentioning India.
1989 Nov: Chinese PM Li Peng visited Nepal. In Kathmandu he said: "all countries, small or big, should be treated equally. Problems and disputes should be handled according to five principles of peaceful co-existence".

Revolution 1990 / People's Movement 1 (जनआन्दोलन भाग १)
1989 Sep: more than 900 Nepali Congress supporters were arrested.
1990 Jan 18: Nepali Congress called for a decisive movement for the restoration of democracy and welcomed other parties to join.
1990 Jan : seven communist parties formed a alliance to fight for democracy led by Sahana Pradhan.
1990 February 18 (Falgun 7, 2046 B.S.): Nation-wide Movement for Restoration of Democracy was started by Nepali Congress and Left front of seven Communist Parties led by CPN (ML).
1990 Apr 6: 50 pro-democracy demonstrators were killed in Kathmandu on a march to Royal Palace.
Lokendra Bahadur Chand as PM (2nd time) [13 days]

1990 Apr 6: King appointed Lokendra Bahadur Chand as PM (2nd time) [13 days]

1990 Apr 8: upraising organized by Nepali Congress and Left alliance became successful, King Birendra removed the 30 years ban on political parties. Panchayat System ended.
1990 Apr 15: Panchayat System was suspended.

1990 Apr 19: Krishna Prasad Bhattarai from Nepali Congress became PM
1990 Apr: India removed the 13 months blockade in Nepal.
1990 June: PM Bhattarai visited India and met Indian PM VP Singh. India removed the blockade.
1990 Dec 9 (B.S. 2047 Mangsir 23): King Birendra promulgated new constitution of Nepal. (नेपाल अधिराज्यको संविधान, २०४७)
1991 March: CPN (ML) and CPN (Marxist) united to form CPN (UML)
1991 May 12: First election after restoration of democracy. Nepali congress won majority (110 out of 205) seats. CPN UML got 69 seats where as future maoist party Samyukta Janamorcha became 3rd party winning 9 seats.
1993 Jan 27-Feb 2: 5th convention of CPN UML, party adopted People's Multi-party Democracy.

Key People

King Mahendra (1920 June 11 - 1972 Jan 31)

King Birendra (1945 Dec 29 - 2001 June 1)
BP Koirala (1914 Sep 8 - 1982 Jul 21) NC Leader
Ganeshman Singh (1915 Nov 9 - 1997 Sep 18) NC Leader
Tulsi Giri (b 1926 Sep 26 - present) PM
Kirtinidhi Bista (1927 Jan 15 - 2017 Nov 11) PM  
Nagendra Prasad Rijal  (1927 Apr 20 - 1994 Sep 23) PM

Surya Bahadur Thapa ( 1928 Mar 21- 2015 Apr 15) PM
Lokendra B Chand (1940 Feb 15 - present) PM
Marich Man Singh Shrestha (1942 Jan 1 -2013 Aug 15) PM

Ram Raja Prasad Singh (1936 - 2012 Sep 12)  key figure against Panchayati system.