List of Hindu religious traditions, maths and notable leaders

This is the full list of established hindu sampradaya, traditions, mathas, organizations etc and their notable Gurus, Bhagwans or leaders.

Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham (Tamilnadu) (link)
It is the oldest hindu monastic institution in Tamilnadu claimed to be founded in 482 BC by Adi Shankaracharya. Since its establishment it has been led by 70 unbroken linage of Acharyas so far in these 2,500 years. The 69th Acharya of Kanchi Sri Jayendra Sarasvati Swami and his disciple 70th nominated successor Sankara Vijayendra Sarasvati are looking after the Kanchi Sankara Matha at present.

Shri Gaudapadacharya Matha (Goa) (Link)
Founded in 740 AD this is one of the oldest hindu math.  It's founder was Gauda-pada whose student Govinda Bhagavatpada was the guru of Adi Shankaracharya. Shrimad Shivananda Saraswati Swami Gaudapadacharya is the present and 77th Peetadipathi (head of monastery). Unlike other mathas, this matha does not intent to influence all Hindus, its jurisdiction is limited to southern Saraswat Brahmins only.

4 mathas (peeths) of Advaita Vedanta Tradition/ Dashnami Sampradaya
Adi Shankaracharya established 4 peeths (monasteries) in around 820 AD to provide the organized base for the growth of Sanatan Dharma. They are Jyotir Math in North (Uttarakhand), Sringeri Sharada Peetham in South (Karnataka), Govardhana matha in East (Orissa) and Dvaraka Pitha in west (Gujarat). He also organized a part of the Ekadandi monks under an umbrella grouping of ten names, later these 10 groups (Dashnami) also became 10 surnames.

* Jyotir Math (North, Uttarakhand)
Totakacharya (820 AD) (1st head of Jyotir peetham)
Swami Ramakrishna Tīrtha (18th century)
vacant - 165 years
Brahmananda Saraswati (1941-53)
Swami Shantanand Saraswati  (1953 - 1980)
Swami Vishnudevananda Saraswati (1980-89)
Swami Krishnabodha Asrama (x-1973)
Swami Swarūpānanda Saraswatī  of Jyotir Math (1973-now)

Sringeri Sharada Peetham (South, Karnataka) (Link) (full list)
Chandrashekhara Bharati III (1912-1954) (34th)
Abhinava Vidyatirtha (1954-1989) (35th)
Bharati Tirtha (1989-Present) (36th & present)

Dvaraka Pitha (West, Gujarat)
Sri Trivikrama Tirtha  (x- 1921)
Sri Bharati Krishna Tirtha (1921-1925 )
Shri Swarupananda and Shri Yogeswarananda (1925-x)
Shri Abhinava Saccidananda Tirtha (1945-1982)
Swami Swarūpānanda Saraswatī  of Jyotir Math (1982-now)

Govardhana Puri matha (East, Orissa)
Padmapadacharya (1st, 8th century)
Swami Bharati Krishna (1925-1960)
Yogeswaranda Tirtha (1960-1961)
Niranjana Deva Tirtha (1964-1992)
Niscalananda Saraswati (1992-x)

Sri Vaishnavism (Vishnu Pranami)
It is a Vaishnava sect dedicated to the worship of the Vedic Supreme Being Vishnu. Nathamuni of 10th century is considered the pioneer of this sect.  Ramanuja (1017–1137) played major role to spread this philosophy. Since then Sri Sampradaya has been led by various monastic establishments and Acharyas appointed by Ramanuja till date. Most notable monasteries are The Jeeyar Swamy Mutt (Tirumala, Andhra Pradesh), Embar Mutt (Puri, Orissa), Yadugiri Yatiraj Mutt (Melukote, Karnataka) and Sriranga Narayana Jeeyar Mutt (Srirangam) etc. It has two sub-sects Thenkalai and Vadakalai.

Nijanand (Pranami) Sampradaya (Jamnagar, Gujarat) (link)
It was founded by Shri Devchandra Maharaj (1581–1655) in 1630 AD. But his successor Mahamati Prannathji (Mehraj Thakur) (1618–1694) was the key in spreading the religion. Shri 5 Navtanpuri Dham, Jamnagar is the main temple. Acharya Shri 108 Krishnamaniji Maharaj serves as the 14th and current Jagadguru (head) of the sampradaya.

Swaminarayan Sampradaya (Gujarat) (Link)
It was founded in 1800 AD by Swaminarayan aka Sahajanand Swami (1781-1830). The sampradaya is administrated from two seats :- Nar Narayan Dev Gadi in Ahmedabad, UP and Laxmi Narayan Dev Gadi in Vadtal, Gujarat. Acharya Shree Koshalendraprasadji Maharaj is the current acharya of Narnarayandev gadhi whereas H.H. 1008 Shree Acharya Shree Ajendraprasadji Maharaj is the current acharya of Laxmi Narayandev Gadhi. This sampradaya is said to have followers about 20 million throughout the world. It has several temples in India, USA, UK etc.

Arya Samaj (Link)
It was founded by Swami Dayananda Saraswati in 1875 for religious and social reform. They believe in only one supreme god known as 'Aum' and Veda is the only ultimate authority for them, they reject all other Hindu religious books.

Ramkrishna Mission & Math (Belur, West Bengal) (Link)
This mission was established by iconic hindu leader Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902) in 1897 with the influence of his Guru Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (1836-1886). Swami Atmasthananda (b. 1919) is the current & 15th president of the mission.

Satsang - Thakur dharma - Jai Guru (Deoghar, Jharkhand) (Link)
Satsang was first started in 1914 by Sree Sree Thakur Anukulchandra (1888-1969). Manomohini Devi (1870-1938), mother and guru of Anukulchandra was the first President of Satsang. After Anukulchandra his son Sree Sree Borda Amarendranath Chakravarty (1911–1995) took the leadership. Now Asoke Chakravarty, grandson of Anukulchandra is the main Guru and president of the Satsang.

Divine Light Mission - DLM (Divya Sandesh Parishad / Aatma Gyan)
It was founded in 1960 by  'Satguru' Hans Ji Maharaj (1900-1966). After his death his son Prem Rawat (aka Guru Maharaj) (link) took the charge of DLM at the age of 16. It had huge exposure in USA in 1970s. But after Prem Rawat's marriage to an american devotee he lost his control in Indian DLM where his mother installed his brother Satpal Rawat (later union minister of India) in 1975. Prem rawat changed the DLM america name to Elan Vital in 1983 to remove the influence of Hindu religion and to make his teachings independent of culture, beliefs and lifestyles. Elan Vital is now said to be succeeded by new entity Words of Peace International (L).

International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) - New York, USA (link)
This society was founded in 1966 in New York, USA by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. It is a 'Gaudiya Vaishnava' Hindu religious organization having focus on Bhagwat Geeta and Bhagwat puran. It aims to spread the practice of 'Bhakti Yoga', in which devotees (bhaktas) dedicate their life toward the Supreme Lord, Krishna. Its also known as the Hare Krishna movement. Now it has more than 550 centers all around the world.

Jagadguru Kripalu Parishad (JKP) (Pratapgarh, UP)
It was founded in 1970 by Jagadguru Shri Kripalu Ji Maharaj (1922-2013). It has four main aashrams in India : Rangeeli Mahal - Barsana, Bhakti Dham-Mangarh, Shyama Shyam Dham-Vrindavan and Jagadguru Dham- Vrindavan. Its aasram Radha Madhav Dham-Texas, USA is the largest Hindu temple in Americas.

Other spiritual and cultural traditions, movements and organizations

Bramhakumaris World Spiritual University (1930s) (Mt. Abu, Rajasthan)
This religious movement was originated in Hyderabad (current-day Pakistan) during the 1930s and was founded by Dada Lekhraj Kripalani aka Brahma Baba. Women play the greater role in this movement. This movement focuses on meditation and soul-consciousness. It is said to have over 8,500 centers in 100 countries.

Sathya Sai Organization (1960) (Puttaparthi, Andhra Pradesh)
This organization was established by Satya Sai Baba (1926-2011) in 1960 and greatly influenced by Sai Baba of Shirdi and his movement. Devotees of this tradition believe that Satya Sai Baba was in fact the reincarnation of Shirdi Sai. Teaching of Shirdi Sai combined the elements of Hinduism and Islam and his well known epigrams, "Sabka Malik Ek" ("One God governs all"), is indicates that as well.

The Art of Living Foundation (1981) by Sri Sri Ravishankar (b.1956) (Link)
This organization was founded by Sri Sri Ravishankar in 1981. Its international headquarter is in Bangalore, India. It has branches in 56 countries and working in special consultative status with United Nation's ECOSOC. It offers a variety of personal-development, trauma-relief, educational programs

Rajneesh OSHO movement (1970-1990)
Osho (1931-1990) was a spiritual teacher having a more open attitude towards sexuality and was critic of socialism and institutionalized religions. This movement got in controversy in both India and USA. Osho had several initiated disciples known as Neo-Sannyasins from western world. They had a planned community residence 'Rajneeshpuram' in Oregon, USA between 1981-84, turning an empty rural property into a city of up to 7,000 people. Followers of Osho Rajneeshee were accused of 1984 bio-terror attack in The Dalles, Oregon and 1985 conspiracy of assassination of US district attorney Charles Turner. Osho had to move to different places in India and USA because of controversy.

Yoga movement of Baba Ramdev (Patanjali Yogpeeth- Haridwar, 2006)
Yoga teacher Baba Ramdev founded the Divya Yog Mandir Trust in 1995 and Patanjali Yogpeeth in 2006. Since 2003 he began teach yoga in TV and gained big fame. Now he is one of the prominent figure of contemporary yoga movement.

See Also:-
Bahun people