Body Parts

All internal and external body parts of a human being and its relative Nepali names.


Internal body parts (शरीर भित्रका अंगहरु)

1. Skeletal System (Astipanjar Pranali, अस्तिपंजर प्रणाली)

Bones (हड्डी): Total 206 individual bones
axial skeleton (80) [Head & main body]: Skull (खप्पर) (22), Hyoid (घाँटीको हड्डी) (1), Auditory ossicles (कानको हड्डी) (6), Ribs (करंग) (24), Sternum (बीच छातीको हड्डी) (1), Vertebral column/Backbone (ढाडको हड्डी) (26)
appendicular skeleton (126) [Hand, Feet & nearby] regions:- Upper limbs, Lower limbs, Pelvic girdle, Pectoral (shoulder) girdle

Cartilages: a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints

Ligaments : tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages.

Tendons : flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone.


2. Muscular System (Maanspesi Pranali, मांसपेसी प्रणाली)

Muscle (मांसपेसी): There are about 700 named muscles what make up roughly half of body weight.
All muscles fall in 3 broader category: Skeletal muscle, Cardiac muscle & Smooth muscle.

Musculoskeletal System= Muscular System + Skeletal System

3. Circulatory System / Cardiovascular system (Raktasanchar Pranali, रक्तसंचार प्रणाली)

Blood vessels (रगतका नशाहरु): Arteries (धमनी) , Vains (शिरा)
Heart (मुटु): septum (thick wall), Atrium (2), Ventricle (2)


4. Respiratory System (Swasprashwas Pranali, स्वासप्रश्वास प्रणाली)

Lungs (फोक्सो), Respiratory tract (स्वशनली) (nose, nasal cavities, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli)

5. Nervous System (Snayau Pranali, स्नायु प्रणाली)

Central Nervous System
Brain (Dimag): Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Brain stem, Diencephalon (Thalamus, Hypothalamus)
Susumna (सुषुंना) = Spinal Cord

Peripheral: Shira, Nasaa = Vein

Sensory System is the part of Nervous system.


6. Integumentary system / Skin

Skin (छाला) :  Epidermis (outer layer), Dermis (middle layer) & hypo-dermis (inner layer)
Other: Hair, Nails, Sebaccous (oil) glands, Sweat gland, Scales, Feathers, Hooves


7. Lymphatic System / Immune System (Pratirakshya Pranali, प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली)

lymphatic vessels, lymph
lymphatic system, Lymphoid tissue, Lymph nodes, Thymus, Spleen.

8. Glandular System / Endocrine System (ग्रन्थि प्रणाली)

Endocrine Glands: Pineal gland, Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland, Thymus, Adrenal gland, Pancreas, Ovaries, Testes

(Exocrine glands secrete their products through a duct onto an outer surface of the body, such as the skin or the gastrointestinal tract.)

9. Digestive System (Paachan Pranali, पाचन प्रणाली)

Mouth (मुख)
Pharynx (निल्ने घाँटी)
Esophagus (खाना नली)
Stomach (pet, पेट)
Small Intestine (सानो आन्द्रा)
Large Intestine (ठुलो आन्द्रा)
> Cecum (waiting room after food exits Small intestine) (Appendix dangles on cecum)
> Rectum (end of large intestine, it opens to outside body: Anus)

10. Urinary System (Mutra Pranali, मुत्र प्रणाली)

Kidney (मृगौला)
Ureter (2 tubes carry urine from 2 Kidneys to Bladder)
Bladder (holding place for urine)
Urethra (मूत्रमार्ग) (tube carries urine from bladder to outside body) (male 6-8" & female 1.5-2.5")

UTI is the infection in any part of Urinary System.


11. Reproductive System (Prajanan Pranali, प्रजनन प्रणाली)

Female

Internal:
Ovaries (contains all egg while girl born),
Fallopian tubes (4/5 inch long tube joins ovaries & uterus) ,
Uterus (गर्भाशय)
Vagina (3 inches long muscular tube joins Uterus to outside body)

External: Vaginal opening,
labia (lips of vaginal opening),
clitoris (sensitive small tissue at the top of labia)

Male
Testicles (गेडा, अन्डकोष) (its a gland that secrete testosterone)
Epididymis (back of testicles)
Vas dererens (tube joins epididymis and penis)
Penis  (लिंग) (does Ejaculation)


Sharir ka Anga = Body Parts  - Outside/ External 

Tauko (टाउको) = Head 
Kapaal (कपाल) = Hair
Anuhaar (अनुहार) = Face
Nidhar (निधार)= Forehead
Aankha (आँखा)= Eye
Aankha ko Naani (आखाको नानी) =  Pupil
Aankha ko pardaa (आखाको पर्दा) = Retina
Kaan (कान)= Ear
Naak (नाक)= Nose
Mukh  (मुख)= Mouth
Oth (ओथ) = Lip
Jibro (जिब्रो) = Tongue
Daant (दाँत) = Teeth
Gija (गिजा) = Gums
Ghanti (घाँटी) = Neck
Galaa (गला) = Throat
Kantha/Swortantra (कण्ठ/स्वरतन्त्र) = Larynx
Rudraghanti / Kilkile = Adam's Apple  (Uvula, Tonsil)


Jiuu = Trunk/Torso

Chhati (छाती)= Chest
Stan (स्तन)= Brest
Dudhko munta (दूधको मुन्टा) = Nipple
Bhundi/ Pet (पेट) = Stomach , Abdomen
Dhaad/Peeth  (धाद)= Back
Merudanda (मेरुदण्ड) = Spine
Naaito (नाइटो) = Umbilicus

Kammar (कमर), Nitamba (नितम्ब)  = Wasit, Hip
Kamar ra tighra bichko bhaag (कमर र तिध्रा बिचको भाग) = Groin
Linga (लिंग)= Penis
Anda (अन्डा) = Testis/Ovary
Yoni  (योनि)= Vegina
Mutradwar (मुत्रद्वार) = Urethral opening
Chaak = Butt chick
Maladwar/Guda (मलद्वार/गुदा) = Anus

Haat (हात) = Hand , Upper limb

Kum/Kaandh (कुम/काँध) = Shoulder
Pakhura = Arm
Kuhino (कुहिनो) = Elbow

Naadi  (नाडी)= Wrist
Hatkela (हत्केला) = Palm
Muthi = Fist
Aunla (औंला) = Finger
Nang (नङ्ग) = Nail
Thumb: Budhi aunla (बूढी औंला)
1st/pointing finger: Chor aunla (चोर औंला)
Little/fifth finger: Kaanchi aunla (कान्छी औंला)


Khutta (खुट्टा) / Goda (गोडा) = Feet / Lower Limb
Tighra  (तिध्रा)= Thigh 
Ghunda (घुंडा) = Knee
Pinaula (पिंडौला) = Calf
Goligantho = Anckle
Kurkuchha = Heel
Paitala (पैताला) = Sole
Aunla (औंला) = finger/toe

General overall 
Joint  = Jorni (जोर्नी)
Digit = fingers or toe (eg: digit of foot is toe)
Limbs = haat (hand), khutta (leg), pakheta (wings)
Maasu (मासु) = Muscle
Chhaalaa (छाला) = Skin
Haddi (हड्डी) = Bone
Agaadi (अगाडि) = Anterior/Ventral
Pachhaadi (पछाडी) = Posterior/Dorsal
Bhitri (भित्री) = Medial/Inner
Baahiri (बाहिरी) = Lateral/Outer


Tags:-
BIO201 & BIO202