Body Parts : Internal

All internal body parts of a human being and its relative Nepali names.


1. Skeletal System (Astipanjar Pranali, अस्तिपंजर प्रणाली)

Bones (हड्डी): Total 206 individual bones
axial skeleton (80) [Head & main body]: Skull (खप्पर) (22), Hyoid (घाँटीको हड्डी) (1), Auditory ossicles (कानको हड्डी) (6), Ribs (करंग) (24), Sternum (बीच छातीको हड्डी) (1), Vertebral column/Backbone (ढाडको हड्डी) (26)
appendicular skeleton (126) [Hand, Feet & nearby] regions:- Upper limbs, Lower limbs, Pelvic girdle, Pectoral (shoulder) girdle

Cartilages: a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints

Ligaments : tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages.

Tendons : flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone.


2. Muscular System (Maanspesi Pranali, मांसपेसी प्रणाली)

Muscle (मांसपेसी): There are about 700 named muscles what make up roughly half of body weight.
All muscles fall in 3 broader category: Skeletal muscle, Cardiac muscle & Smooth muscle.

Together with the Skeletal System, Muscular System forms the Musculoskeletal System, which is responsible for movement of the human body.

3. Integumentary system / Skin

Skin (छाला) :  Epidermis (outer layer), Dermis (middle layer) & hypo-dermis (inner layer)
Other: Hair, Nails, Sebaccous (oil) glands, Sweat gland, Scales, Feathers, Hooves


4. Circulatory System / Cardiovascular system

Blood vessels: Arteries, Vains
Heart: septum (thick wall), Atrium (2), Ventricle (2)


5. Respiratory System (Swasprashwas Pranali, स्वासप्रश्वास प्रणाली)

Lungs (फोक्सो), Respiratory tract (स्वशनली) (nose, nasal cavities, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli)

6. Nervous System (Snayau Pranali, स्नायु प्रणाली)

Central Nervous System
Brain (Dimag): Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Brain stem, Diencephalon (Thalamus, Hypothalamus)
Susumna (सुषुंना) = Spinal Cord

Peripheral
Shira, Nasaa = Vein

Sensory System is the part of Nervous system.

7. Lymphatic System / Immune System (Pratirakshya Pranali, प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली)

lymphatic vessels, lymph
lymphatic system, Lymphoid tissue, Lymph nodes, Thymus, Spleen.

8. Glandular System / Endocrine System (ग्रन्थि प्रणाली)

Endocrine Glands: Pineal gland, Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland, Thymus, Adrenal gland, Pancreas, Ovaries, Testes

(Exocrine glands secrete their products through a duct onto an outer surface of the body, such as the skin or the gastrointestinal tract.)


9. Digestive System (Paachan Pranali, पाचन प्रणाली)

Mouth (मुख)
Pharynx (निल्ने घाँटी)
Esophagus (खाना नली)
Stomach (pet, पेट)
Small Intestine (सानो आन्द्रा)
Large Intestine (ठुलो आन्द्रा)
> Cecum (waiting room after food exits Small intestine) (Appendix dangles on cecum)
> Rectum (end of large intestine, it opens to outside body: Anus)

10. Urinary System (Mutra Pranali, मुत्र प्रणाली)

Kidney (मृगौला)
Ureter (2 tubes carry urine from 2 Kidneys to Bladder)
Bladder (holding place for urine)
Urethra (मूत्रमार्ग) (tube carries urine from bladder to outside body) (male 6-8" & female 1.5-2.5")

UTI is the infection in any part of Urinary System.


11. Reproductive System (Prajanan Pranali, प्रजनन प्रणाली)

Female

Internal:
Ovaries (contains all egg while girl born),
Fallopian tubes (4/5 inch long tube joins ovaries & uterus) ,
Uterus (गर्भाशय)
Vagina (3 inches long muscular tube joins Uterus to outside body)

External: Vaginal opening,
labia (lips of vaginal opening),
clitoris (sensitive small tissue at the top of labia)

Male
Testicles (गेडा) (its a gland that secrete testosterone)
Epididymis (back of testicles)
Vas dererens (tube joins epididymis and penis)
Penis  (लिंग) (does Ejaculation)


BIO201 & BIO202