Human anatomy

This post intends to list all parts of human anatomy in english and its Nepali translation if available. Use Ctrl+F or Command+F in mac to find your word.


Anatomic locations

  • Transverse/ axial / horizontal plane = divide upper and lower half (~ superior - inferior)
  • Frontal / coronal plane = divides vertically from front to back (~ Anterior - posterior)
  • Sagittal/ longitudinal plane = divides vertically from right to left (nearest this plain medial & fartherst from this plain in lateral)
  • Anterior/Ventral/ Front  - Posterior/Dorsal/Back 
  • Medial/Inner - Lateral/Outer
  • Superior - Inferior = upper - lower
  • Proximal - Distal = near or far from main body (shoulder is proximal than hand)
  • Central - Peripheral = ~ proximal - distal, related to main body- r/t limbs
  • Superficial - deep = close - far from surface
  • Cranial - caudal= towards head or tail

Neurological system

Central nervous system (CNS)

* Brain
> Cerebrum
    >> Cerebral cortex: a thin layer of the brain that covers the outer portion (1.5mm to 5mm) of the cerebrum, aka gray matter, covered by the meninges. It has 4 lobes

Frontal lobe:
- motor cortex: planning and coordinating movement
- prefrontal cortex: higher-level cognitive functioning
- Broca’s area: language production

Parietal lobe:
- somatosensory cortex: processing sensory information like touch, temperature, and pain.

Occipital lobe:
- primary visual cortex:  interpreting incoming visual information.

Temporal lobe:
- auditory cortex: processing auditory information
- Wernicke’s area: speech comprehension

Cerebral cortex(Neocortex  and Allocortex)
white matter, grey matter

 >>  Corpus callosum: thick fiber that connect left and right hemispheres of brain

> Cerebellum/ telencephalon: role in motor control

> Diencephalon: thalamus, the hypothalamus, the epithalamus and the subthalamus.

- Thalamus: relays sensory information
- Hypothalamus: both endocrine & nervous system
- epithalamus
- esubthalamus



> Hippocampus:  role in learning and memory

- Pituitary gland/ hypophysis: ENDOCRINE, master gland
- Basal gangila
- Brainstem (joins upper part of brain to spinal cord):
* midbrain:vision, hearing, motor control, sleep and wake, alertness, temperature regulation
* pons: includes neural pathways and tracts
* medulla oblongata : vomiting to sneezing

- 12 cranial nerves: relay information between the brain and parts of the body. It can be seen on the ventral (bottom) surface of the brain. They are part of CNS and PNS.
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 Forebrain (prosencephalon) :
 - diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus, epithalamus, and pretectum)
 - telencephalon which develops into the cerebrum

midbrain (mesencephalon):

hindbrain (rhombencephalon) :  cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata 

* Spinal cord
- 40 to 50 cm long and 1 cm to 1.5 cm in diameter
- joins to medulla oblongata of brain on top and ends at Conus medullaris/ conus terminalis in around L1, L2 region on bottom.

Regions: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar 

Central canal,
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

- Blood–brain barrier (BBB): highly selective semipermeable border that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
- connects CNS to limbs and organs



Integumentary system

Epidermis
- Stratum corneum
- Stratum lucidum
- Stratum granulosum
- Stratum spinosum
- Stratum basale (melanocyte)
- sweat pore

Dermis
- Connective tissues (collagen and elastin)
- Blood capillaries (the smallest of blood vessels) and other small vessels
- Lymph vessels
- Sweat glands duct
- Sebaceous/oil glands
- Nerve endings
- Touch receptors
- Hair follicle (there are about 2 million hair follicles in the body)

Hypodermis/ subcutaneous layer/ superficial fascia
- Adipose tissue (storage site for body fat)
- Blood vessels (arteriole, venule)



Circulatory system & Hematology

Blood anatomy/ Hematology

1. Plasma (~55%) [liquid] *Cerum is Plasma without fibrinogen
- 90% water
- 8% protein: Albumin (bleeding), Antibody, fibrinogen (clotting), etc
- 2% Hormones (Insulin), Electrolytes (eg Na, K), nutrients (Glucose)

2. WBC/ leukocyte & platelets (<1%) [fights infection]
- neutrophil 55-70% of WBC, life >1 day.
- T-lymphocyte  [ attack infected cells]
- B-lymphocyte  [make antibody]

Platelets /thrombocytes (fragments of cells helps in blood clotting)
- Thrombocytopenia : low platelets, bleeding
- Thrombocytosis: hight platelets, clotting

3. RBC/ erythrocytes (~45 %):
- protein (hemoglobin) [deliver O2 and nutrients]
- Hematocrit = RBC volume/ Total volume [high hematocrit : polycythemia, low hematocrit= anemia]

*7-8% of total body weight is blood, average male las 12 pint blood in body, women has 9 pint
*Centrifuge machine, fast spinning doing centrifugation, divides blood by weight in 3 layers, top layer least densed
*erythropoietin hormone produced by Kidney controls production of RBC
*RBC survives approximately 120 days

Circulatory system

Heart Chambers (4): right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
Valves (4): Tricuspid/ Atrioventricular valve, Pulmonary Valve, Mitral valve, Aortic valve

Right atrium fed by: Superior vena cava, Inferior Vena cava, many of anterior cardiac veins and smallest cardiac veins, and the coronary sinus (from heart muscle- Myocardium)
SA node (top left) & AV node (bottom right of right atrium) give electrical impulse
-Electrical impulse myocytes: Inter-nodal tracts (3), Bachmann's bundle, bundle of his, right bundle branch, left bundle branch (posterior and anterior fascicle)



Abdomino = Abdomin
Adeno = Gland
Masto/mammo = breast (mammography=breast x-ray)
Stetho = Chest (Stethescope = instrument to observe chest) 
Gastro = stomach (gastritis = stomach lining inflammation)
Entero = intestine (Enteroscopy = procedure to view intestine)
Colo = large intestine (colitis = colon inflammation)
Chole= bile, gall (Cholecystitis= gallbladder inflammation)
Procto = anus/rectum proctitis, proctologist
Hepato = liver hepatitis, hepatomegaly
Nephro/rene = kidney nephrosis, renal artery
Pneumo/pulmo = lung pneumonitis, pulmonologist
Appendo/Appendico = Appendix
Cardio = heart (electrocardiogram-ECG= record of heart's electric activity)
Spino = Spine
Orchido = testis orchiditis, orchidectomy
Oophoro = ovary oophorectomy
Hystero/metro =uterus hysterectomy, endometritis
Salpingo = uterine tubes hysterosalpingogram
Cysto = bladder cystitis
Colpo = vegina (colpostopy= closely examining vegina)
Phallo = Penis (phalloplasty= reconstruction of penis)
Ano = Anus

Chiro = hand (Chiropractic =adjustment with hand)
Podo = Foot (podiatrist = foot doctor)
Dactylo =  finger, toes
Unguo = Nail

Dermo = skin (dermatitis)
Osteo = bones (osteoporosis)
Phlebo/veno = veins (phlebitis, phlebotomy)
Hemo/emia = blood (hematologist, anemia)
Myo = muscle (Myopathy=muscle disease)
Arthro / articulo = Joint
Artero/Arterio = Artery

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