Human anatomy

This post intends to list all parts of human anatomy in english and its Nepali translation if available. Use Ctrl+F or Command+F in mac to find your word.

Anatomic locations

  • Transverse/ axial / horizontal plane = divide upper and lower half (~ superior - inferior)
  • Frontal / coronal plane = divides vertically from front to back (~ Anterior - posterior)
  • Sagittal/ longitudinal plane = divides vertically from right to left (nearest this plain medial & fartherst from this plain in lateral)
  • Anterior/Ventral/ Front  - Posterior/Dorsal/Back 
  • Medial/Inner - Lateral/Outer
  • Superior - Inferior = upper - lower
  • Proximal - Distal = near or far from main body (shoulder is proximal than hand)
  • Central - Peripheral = ~ proximal - distal, related to main body- r/t limbs
  • Superficial - deep = close - far from surface
  • Cranial - caudal= towards head or tail

Neurological system

Central nervous system (CNS)

* Brain
> Cerebrum
    >> Cerebral cortex: a thin layer of the brain that covers the outer portion (1.5mm to 5mm) of the cerebrum, aka gray matter, covered by the meninges. It has 4 lobes

Frontal lobe:
- motor cortex: planning and coordinating movement
- prefrontal cortex: higher-level cognitive functioning
- Broca’s area: language production

Parietal lobe:
- somatosensory cortex: processing sensory information like touch, temperature, and pain.

Occipital lobe:
- primary visual cortex:  interpreting incoming visual information.

Temporal lobe:
- auditory cortex: processing auditory information
- Wernicke’s area: speech comprehension

Cerebral cortex(Neocortex  and Allocortex)
white matter, grey matter

 >>  Corpus callosum: thick fiber that connect left and right hemispheres of brain

> Cerebellum/ telencephalon: role in motor control

> Diencephalon: thalamus, the hypothalamus, the epithalamus and the subthalamus.

- Thalamus: relays sensory information
- Hypothalamus: both endocrine & nervous system
- epithalamus
- esubthalamus

> Hippocampus:  role in learning and memory

- Pituitary gland/ hypophysis: ENDOCRINE, master gland
- Basal gangila
- Brainstem (joins upper part of brain to spinal cord):
* midbrain:vision, hearing, motor control, sleep and wake, alertness, temperature regulation
* pons: includes neural pathways and tracts
* medulla oblongata : vomiting to sneezing

- 12 cranial nerves: relay information between the brain and parts of the body. It can be seen on the ventral (bottom) surface of the brain. They are part of CNS and PNS.

 Forebrain (prosencephalon) :
 - diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus, epithalamus, and pretectum)
 - telencephalon which develops into the cerebrum

midbrain (mesencephalon):

hindbrain (rhombencephalon) :  cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata 

* Spinal cord
- 40 to 50 cm long and 1 cm to 1.5 cm in diameter
- joins to medulla oblongata of brain on top and ends at Conus medullaris/ conus terminalis in around L1, L2 region on bottom.

Regions: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar 

Central canal,
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

- Blood–brain barrier (BBB): highly selective semipermeable border that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
- connects CNS to limbs and organs

Integumentary system

- Stratum corneum
- Stratum lucidum
- Stratum granulosum
- Stratum spinosum
- Stratum basale (melanocyte)
- sweat pore

- Connective tissues (collagen and elastin)
- Blood capillaries (the smallest of blood vessels) and other small vessels
- Lymph vessels
- Sweat glands duct
- Sebaceous/oil glands
- Nerve endings
- Touch receptors
- Hair follicle (there are about 2 million hair follicles in the body)

Hypodermis/ subcutaneous layer/ superficial fascia
- Adipose tissue (storage site for body fat)
- Blood vessels (arteriole, venule)

Circulatory system & Hematology

Blood anatomy/ Hematology

1. Plasma (~55%) [liquid] *Cerum is Plasma without fibrinogen
- 90% water
- 8% protein: Albumin (bleeding), Antibody, fibrinogen (clotting), etc
- 2% Hormones (Insulin), Electrolytes (eg Na, K), nutrients (Glucose)

2. WBC/ leukocyte & platelets (<1%) [fights infection]
- neutrophil 55-70% of WBC, life >1 day.
- T-lymphocyte  [ attack infected cells]
- B-lymphocyte  [make antibody]

Platelets /thrombocytes (fragments of cells helps in blood clotting)
- Thrombocytopenia : low platelets, bleeding
- Thrombocytosis: hight platelets, clotting

3. RBC/ erythrocytes (~45 %):
- protein (hemoglobin) [deliver O2 and nutrients]
- Hematocrit = RBC volume/ Total volume [high hematocrit : polycythemia, low hematocrit= anemia]

*7-8% of total body weight is blood, average male las 12 pint blood in body, women has 9 pint
*Centrifuge machine, fast spinning doing centrifugation, divides blood by weight in 3 layers, top layer least densed
*erythropoietin hormone produced by Kidney controls production of RBC
*RBC survives approximately 120 days

Circulatory system

Heart Chambers (4): right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
Valves (4): Tricuspid/ Atrioventricular valve, Pulmonary Valve, Mitral valve, Aortic valve

Right atrium fed by: Superior vena cava, Inferior Vena cava, many of anterior cardiac veins and smallest cardiac veins, and the coronary sinus (from heart muscle- Myocardium)
SA node (top left) & AV node (bottom right of right atrium) give electrical impulse
-Electrical impulse myocytes: Inter-nodal tracts (3), Bachmann's bundle, bundle of his, right bundle branch, left bundle branch (posterior and anterior fascicle)

Abdomino = Abdomin
Adeno = Gland
Masto/mammo = breast (mammography=breast x-ray)
Stetho = Chest (Stethescope = instrument to observe chest) 
Gastro = stomach (gastritis = stomach lining inflammation)
Entero = intestine (Enteroscopy = procedure to view intestine)
Colo = large intestine (colitis = colon inflammation)
Chole= bile, gall (Cholecystitis= gallbladder inflammation)
Procto = anus/rectum proctitis, proctologist
Hepato = liver hepatitis, hepatomegaly
Nephro/rene = kidney nephrosis, renal artery
Pneumo/pulmo = lung pneumonitis, pulmonologist
Appendo/Appendico = Appendix
Cardio = heart (electrocardiogram-ECG= record of heart's electric activity)
Spino = Spine
Orchido = testis orchiditis, orchidectomy
Oophoro = ovary oophorectomy
Hystero/metro =uterus hysterectomy, endometritis
Salpingo = uterine tubes hysterosalpingogram
Cysto = bladder cystitis
Colpo = vegina (colpostopy= closely examining vegina)
Phallo = Penis (phalloplasty= reconstruction of penis)
Ano = Anus

Chiro = hand (Chiropractic =adjustment with hand)
Podo = Foot (podiatrist = foot doctor)
Dactylo =  finger, toes
Unguo = Nail

Dermo = skin (dermatitis)
Osteo = bones (osteoporosis)
Phlebo/veno = veins (phlebitis, phlebotomy)
Hemo/emia = blood (hematologist, anemia)
Myo = muscle (Myopathy=muscle disease)
Arthro / articulo = Joint
Artero/Arterio = Artery

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