Human anatomy

This post intends to list all parts of human anatomy in English and its Nepali translation if available. Use Ctrl+F or Command+F in mac to find your word.


Anatomic locations
  • Transverse/ axial / horizontal plane = divide upper and lower half (~ superior - inferior)
  • Frontal / coronal plane = divides vertically from front to back (~ Anterior - posterior)
  • Sagittal/ longitudinal plane = divides vertically from right to left (nearest this plain medial & farthest from this plain in lateral)
  • Anterior/Ventral/ Front  - Posterior/Dorsal/Back 
  • Medial/Inner - Lateral/Outer
  • Superior - Inferior = upper - lower
  • Proximal - Distal = near or far from main body (shoulder is proximal than hand)
  • Central - Peripheral = ~ proximal - distal, related to main body- r/t limbs
  • Superficial - deep = close - far from surface
  • Cranial - caudal= towards head or tail

1. Neurological system

The central nervous system (CNS)

* Brain
> Cerebrum
    >> Cerebral cortex: a thin layer of the brain that covers the outer portion (1.5mm to 5mm) of the cerebrum, aka gray matter, covered by the meninges. It has 4 lobes

Frontal lobe:
- motor cortex: planning and coordinating movement
- prefrontal cortex: higher-level cognitive functioning
- Broca’s area: language production

Parietal lobe:
- somatosensory cortex: processing sensory information like touch, temperature, and pain.

Occipital lobe:
- primary visual cortex:  interpreting incoming visual information.

Temporal lobe:
- auditory cortex: processing auditory information
- Wernicke’s area: speech comprehension

Cerebral cortex(Neocortex  and Allocortex)
white matter, grey matter

 >>  Corpus callosum: thick fiber that connect left and right hemispheres of brain

> Cerebellum/ telencephalon: role in motor control

> Diencephalon: thalamus, the hypothalamus, the epithalamus and the subthalamus.

- Thalamus: relays sensory information
- Hypothalamus: both endocrine & nervous system
- epithalamus
- esubthalamus

> Hippocampus:  role in learning and memory

- Pituitary gland/ hypophysis: ENDOCRINE, master gland
- Basal gangila
- Brainstem (joins upper part of brain to spinal cord):
* midbrain:vision, hearing, motor control, sleep and wake, alertness, temperature regulation
* pons: includes neural pathways and tracts
* medulla oblongata : vomiting to sneezing

- 12 cranial nerves: relay information between the brain and parts of the body. It can be seen on the ventral (bottom) surface of the brain. They are part of CNS and PNS.
---------------
 Forebrain (prosencephalon) :
 - diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus, epithalamus, and pretectum)
 - telencephalon which develops into the cerebrum

midbrain (mesencephalon):

hindbrain (rhombencephalon):  cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata 

* Spinal cord
- 40 to 50 cm long and 1 cm to 1.5 cm in diameter
- joins to medulla oblongata of the brain on top and ends at Conus medullaris/ conus terminalis in around L1, L2 region on the bottom.

Regions: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar 

Central canal,
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

- Blood-brain barrier (BBB): a highly selective semipermeable border that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid.

The peripheral nervous system (PNS)
- connects CNS to limbs and organs


2. Circulatory / Cardiovascular system

Heart Chambers (4): right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
Heart Valves (4): Tricuspid/ Atrioventricular valve, Pulmonary Valve, Mitral valve, Aortic valve
Septum (thick wall)

Right atrium fed by Superior vena cava, Inferior Vena cava, many of anterior cardiac veins and smallest cardiac veins, and the coronary sinus (from heart muscle- Myocardium)

SA node (top left) & AV node (bottom right of right atrium) give electrical impulse
-Electrical impulse myocytes: Inter-nodal tracts (3), Bachmann's bundle, the bundle of his, right bundle branch, left bundle branch (posterior and anterior fascicle)

Heart blood supply: coronary artery, coronary veins



3. Respiratory System

Upper Airway: Nose, Nostrils (two external openings), Nasal cavity, Sinus (cavity), Pharynx (Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngeal pharynx), Epiglottis, Larynx, Trachea

Lower Airway: Bronchi/Bronchus, Carina (where 2 main bronchi separate), segmental and sub-segmental bronchi, Bronchioles and Terminal bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveolus/alveoli (microscopic), interstitium (thin layer of cells between alveoli) ~ together lungs contain 1,500 miles of airways and 600 million alveoli.

Lung proper: Lungs, Lobes (right 3- superior, middle, and inferior and left 2- superior and inferior), broncho-pulmonary segment (a division of lobes), Pleura (lung outside lining), Pleural space, Cardiac notch, Oblique fissure

Gas exchange: Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary vein, Capillary beds

4. Hematologic and Lymphatic Systems

Blood anatomy/ Hematology

1. Plasma (~55%) [liquid] *Serum is Plasma without fibrinogen
- 90% water
- 8% protein: Albumin (bleeding), Antibody, fibrinogen (clotting), etc
- 2% Hormones (Insulin), Electrolytes (eg Na, K), nutrients (Glucose)


Labs about coagulation: Fibrinogen (130-330 mg/dL), Prothrombin time (PT), PTT, aPTT, INR

2. RBC/ erythrocytes (~45 %): survives approximately 120 days
- Hemoglobin Hgb (+Iron) (delivers O2 and nutrients)
- Hematocrit HCT = % of RBC in blood (Normal range: Male 42-52%, Female 37-47%)
[high hematocrit : polycythemia, low hematocrit= anemia]

Labs: RBC count, Hgb, HCT, PCV, RBC indics (MCV, MCH, MCHC, Reticulocytes)


3. * WBC/ leukocyte  (<1%) [fights infection]
- Granulocytes
 -- neutrophils -First to go to infection site, 55-70% of WBC, life >1 day
 -- eosinophils,
 -- basophils-allergic reaction
- non-granulocytes
 -- lymphocytes (T lymphocyte- attacks infected cells and B lymphocyte-make antibody)
 -- monocytes (biggest WBC, fights virus, bacteria and fungi)

Labs: WBC count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils

* Platelets /thrombocytes (fragments of cells helps in blood clotting)
- Thrombocytopenia: low platelets, bleeding
- Thrombocytosis: too many platelets, clotting

Labs: Platelets count, MPV


*7-8% of total body weight is blood, average 5-6 liter in human body
*centrifugation divides blood into 3 layers: top layer least dense (plasma), bottom most dense(RBC)
*erythropoietin hormone produced by Kidney controls the production of RBC

Lymphatic system
(part of the circulatory system and the immune system)

- lymph (clear fluid)

- lymphatic vessels: tube, complimentary to cardiovascular system

- lymphatic (lymphoid) organs :
Primary: Bone marrow, Thymus
Secondary: Spielen, lymph node (found throughout the body)

- lymphoid tissues

Main conditions r/t Lymphatic system: Enlarged lymph nodes/ Lymphadenopathy, Lymphedema, Lymphoma (lymph tissue cancer), Castleman's disease, Chylothorax, Kawasaki disease, Kikuchi disease, Limpedema, Lymphangitis, Lymphatic filariasis, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Solitary lymphatic nodule

Immune System (Consists functionalities of Hematologic and Lymphatic Systems)

1. WBC (Leukocyte)
   a. Lymphocytes
       (i) T-Cell (Regulator, Effector, Helper)
       (ii) B-Cell
   b. Neutrophils: a phagocyte, Microphases
   c. Monocytes: a phagocyte, Macrophages,
2. Lymphoid Tissue
   a. Thymus gland
   b. Tonsils & Adenoids
   c. Spleen
   d. Lymph nodes
3. Other
   a. Natural Killer (NK) cells
   b. Antibodies: Immunoglobulins, IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE
   c. non-antibody protein

* Cytokines (Chemical messengers)
   - Interleukins
   - Interferons
   - Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
   - Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)



Integumentary system

Epidermis
- Stratum corneum
- Stratum lucidum
- Stratum granulosum
- Stratum spinosum
- Stratum basale (melanocyte)
- sweat pore

Dermis
- Connective tissues (collagen and elastin)
- Blood capillaries (the smallest of blood vessels) and other small vessels
- Lymph vessels
- Sweat glands duct
- Sebaceous/oil glands
- Nerve endings
- Touch receptors
- Hair follicle (there are about 2 million hair follicles in the body)

Hypodermis/ subcutaneous layer/ superficial fascia
- Adipose tissue (storage site for body fat)
- Blood vessels (arteriole, venule)


Latin/Green medical root words

Abdomino = Abdomin
Adeno = Gland (Adenopathy=swollen lymph nodes)
Masto/mammo = breast (mammography=breast x-ray)
Stetho = Chest (Stethescope = instrument to observe chest) 
Gastro = stomach (gastritis = stomach lining inflammation)
Entero = intestine (Enteroscopy = procedure to view intestine)
Colo = large intestine (colon, colitis = colon inflammation)
Chole= bile, gall (Cholecystitis= gallbladder inflammation)
Procto = anus/rectum (proctitis, proctologist)
Hepato = liver (hepatitis, hepatomegaly)
Nephro/rene = kidney (nephrosis, renal artery)
Pneumo/pulmo = lung (pneumonitis, pulmonologist)
Appendo/Appendico = Appendix
Cardio = heart (electrocardiogram-ECG= record of heart's electric activity)
Spino = Spine
Orchido = testis (orchiditis, orchidectomy)
Oophoro = ovary (oophorectomy)
Hystero/metro =uterus (hysterectomy, endometritis)
Salpingo = uterine tubes (hysterosalpingogram)
Cysto = bladder (cystitis)
Colpo = vegina (colpostopy= closely examining vegina)
Phallo = Penis (phalloplasty= reconstruction of penis)
Ano = Anus

Chiro = hand (Chiropractic =adjustment with hand)
Podo = Foot (podiatrist = foot doctor)
Dactylo =  finger, toes (dactyloscopy=fingerprint study)
Unguo = Nail (ungiectomy=surgical removal of nail)

Dermo = skin (dermatitis)
Osteo = bones (osteoporosis)
Phlebo/veno = veins (phlebitis, phlebotomy)
Hemo/emia = blood (hematologist, anemia)
Myo = muscle (Myopathy=muscle disease)
Arthro / articulo = Joint
Artero/Arterio = Artery

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