Timeline of proposed federal structures

This is the timeline list of proposed federal structures of Nepal before the constitution was promulgated in 2015.

See also:- Timeline of 2015 ConstitutionNew federal structure of Nepal

Official Map of Administrative divisions of Nepal by
Government of Nepal, Survey Department (karma99.com)

2018 Feb 1-5: first meeting of all 7 states held in their respective states. 

2017 Nov 26 & Dec 7: provincial election held for the first time in Nepal in all 7 provinces.

2015 Sep 20 Sun (Ashoj 3, 2072 BS): President Dr. Ram Baran Yadav promulgated the Constitution of Nepal in the last meeting of Constituent Assembly. 

2015 Sep 16 Wed (Bhadau 30, 2072 B.S.):  Nepal's Constitution 2072 B.S. endorsed by the constituent assembly meeting by 2/3 majority

2015 Aug 21: After several protests in two weeks 3 major political parties (Congress, UML & Maoist) now agree on a new 7 states model. Three parties have combined 451 (75%) seats in Constituent assembly. 4th party from earlier agreement (Forum-democratic) opposed the agreement.

The 6th state from the earlier "6-state model" is divided into two creating new 6th and 7th state. Salyan district from earlier 5th state is given to new state-6. One village (thori) from parsa district in state-2 is given to state-3.
---
Many regional organizations and parties protested against earlier proposed 6 states model demanding:-
- Akhanda Sudur-paschim (undivided far-west region)
- Akhanda Madhya-paschim (undivided mid-west region)
- Tharuhat Pradesh (from Nawalparasi to Kanchanpur excluding hill districts)
- Karnali pradesh (including present Karnali zone)
- Akhanda Baglung district (not to divide present baglung district)

2015 Aug 8: Four major political parties (Congress, UML, Maoist and Forum-Democratic) agreed on a new 6 states model. All new 6 states will have boundary with India. 4 states (except 2 Lumbini & Madhesh) will have boundary with China as well.

Aug 8, 2015: 6 states of Nepal initially agreed among major parties

2015 June 9 : 16-points agreement between four major political parties (Congress, UML, Maoist and Forum-Democratic). They also agreed on 8 state model. But boundaries are not finalized. Maoist led 30-party alliance split.

2015 Apr 25 : Earthquake in Nepal

2014 Oct 27: CPN-UML proposes 4 states model. Each states will consists hills and terai regions. The proposed four states are: Eastern, Central, Gandak & Karnali. (Link) Later other leaders of UML criticized this idea. UML officially supports Congress 6 or 7 states model. (Link)

2014 Oct 12: Nepali Congress proposed two model of six- or seven-states (Link)
6 & 7 states by Congress (source: ekantipur.com)


2014 Aug 3-4 : Indian PM Narendra Modi visited Nepal

2013 Nov 19 (2070 Mangsir 4): Election of 2nd Constituent Assembly

2012 Apr 28 : UML presented the new proposal to federate the country into 12 states. (Link)

2012 Jan 19 : State Reconstruction Commission proposes two separate federal structures, one with 11 states (including one non territorial state) and another with 6 states. (link) Among 9 members of commission 6 members (Malla K Sundar, Stella Tamang from Maoist, Prof Dr Krishna Hachhethu, Surendra Mahato from Madheshi morcha, Bhogendra Jha from UML & co-ordinator Madan Pariyar) proposed 11-state model and 3 members (Ramesh Dhungel & Sabitri Gurung from NC and Sarbraj Khadka from UML) proposed 6states model. (link) (link) (link)
10+1 states by SRC
10+1 and 6 states by SRC

2011 Nov 22: Baburam Bhattarai Government decided to from State Reconstruction Commission according to Article 138 of internal constitution of Nepal. It has given 2 months to give report.

2010 Jan 20: State Reconstruction Committee of CA passes federal structure of 14 states supported by UCPNM and UML. 14 proposed states and map are as follows:-

East hills: Limbuwan, Kirat, Sherpa, Sunkoshi,
Central hills: Newa, Tamsaling,
West hills: Narayani, Tamuwan, Magarat, Jadan, Karnali, Khaptad,
Terai: Mithila-Bhojpura-Koch-Madhesh, Lumbini-Awadh-Tharuwan.

Proposed federal structure of Nepal
by CA- Stare Reconstruction Committee 2010

2008 May 28: First Constituent Assembly (CA) meeting declares Nepal to be federal democratic republic by 560-4 votes. (12)

2008 Apr 10 : First Constituent Assembly election. CPN Maoist, Nepali Congress, CPN-UML & MJF became 1st,2nd,3rd & 4th party respectively.

2008 Feb 28 : 8-point agreement (८ बुँदे सहमति)  between Government and "Samyukta Loktantrik Madheshi Morcha" including MJF, TMLP, Sadbhawana Party (Agreed on Nepal to be Federal democratic republic and there will be autonomous Madhesh state).

2007 Aug 30: 22-point agreement between government and MJF

2007 Jan 16 : Madhesh uprising started led by Madheshi Janadhikar Forum (MJF)

2007 Jan 15 : Interim constitution of Nepal 2007 issued.

2006 Apr 24 : '19 days-Democracy movement of Nepal' ended, King re-instated the old parliament.

2002 Feb 28: Dr. Harka Gurung suggests "25-district New Nepal" as a new approach for decentralization.

Karma99.com - Screenshot of Dr Hark Gurung's article on
Himal Khabarpatrika 2002 Feb

Various Provincial Demands & Data (2011 Census)

West Tharuhat: 8 westernmost terai districts (Nawalparasi, Rupendehi, Kapilvastu, Dang, Banke, Bardiya, Kailali, Kanchanpur) population:48,03,069 - Tharu: 24.1%

East Tharuhat: 6 eastern districts (Jhapa, Morang, Sunsari, Saptari, Siraha, Udayapur)
Population: 41,35,656 - Tharu: 6.9%

Akhanda Sudur Paschim population: 25,52,517 √   State no 7

Limbuwan: 9 districts east of Arun-Koshi river (Jhapa, Morang, Sunsasri, Ilam, Panchthar, Taplejung, Dhankuta, Terhathum & Sankhuwasabha) population: 35,74,770 - Limbu 10.2%

Newa: (Kathmandu valley) population: 25,17,023 - Newar 26.9%

Samagra Madhesh Ek Swayetta Pradesh (All Madhesh One Province) and United Tharuhat
Total population of terai : 1,33,18,705 (50.27 % of Nepal) - Tharu 12.5%


Other Links
  1. http://www.ekantipur.com/np/2068/10/21/full-story/342271.html
  2. http://www.newsvitta.com.np/more

See Also
  1. Timeline of 2015 Constitution
  2. New federal structure of Nepal


This article discuss all administrative divisions of Nepal implemented from unification era (18th century) to now. Administrative division of Nepal is recently been changed by promulgating the new constitution of Nepal in 2015 Sep 20. Click to see: New federal structure of Nepal and Proposed Federal structures.

Sub-division after the unification

During King Rajendra Bikram and PM Bhimsen Thapa in 1816 A.D. Nepal was divided into 10 districts. All eastern areas from Dudhkoshi river was in one Dhankuta district.


Sub-division of Rana era

During the rule of Rana PM Bir Shamsher (1885-1901) Nepal was further divided into total 32 districts. There were 20 districts in hill and 12 districts in terai. Palpa and Dhankuta were the center (gaunda) of west and east. Terai districts used to be call Tahsil (तहसिल).

Under Dhankuta gauda (धनकुटा गौंडा) there were 6 districts :-
  1. East no 1 (पूर्व १ नम्वर) Kabhre (काभ्रेपलाञ्चोक), Sindhupalchowk (सिन्धुपाल्चोक)
  2. East No 2 (पूर्व २ नम्वर) Dolakha (दोलखा), Ramechhap (रामेछाप)
  3. East No 3 (पूर्व ३ नम्वर) Okhaldhunga (ओखलढुंगा), Solukhumbu (सोलुखुम्बु)
  4. East No 4 (पूर्व ४ नम्वर ) Bhojpur (भोजपुर), Khotang (खोटाङ्)
  5. Ilam (इलाम) now Illam and Panchthar (पाँचथर)
  6. Dhanuta (धनकुटा) now Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha (संखुवासभा), Terathaum (तेह्रथुम), Taplejung (ताप्लेजुङ्)

Other Eastern Districts/Tahsils:-
  1. Jhapa now Jhapa (झापा)
  2. Biratnagar (विराटनगर) now Morang (मोरङ्) and Sunsari (सुनसरी)
  3. Saptari now Saptari (सप्तरी) and Siraha (सिराहा)
  4. Mahottari now Dhanusha (धनुषा), Mahottari (महोत्तरी) and Sarlahi (सर्लाही)
  5. Udayapur now Udayapur (उदयपुर)
  6. Khajhani (खजहनी) now Sindhuli (सिन्धुली)
Central Districts:-
  1. Kathmandu (काठमाडौं) now Kathmandu (काठमाडौं)   
  2. Bhaktapur (भक्तपुर) now Bhaktapur (भक्तपुर)
  3. Lalitpur (ललितपुर) now Lalitpur (ललितपुर)
  4. Birgunj (वीरगञ्ज) now Bara (बारा), Parsa (पर्सा), Rautahat (रौतहट)
  5. Chisapanigadhi (चिसापानीगढी) now Makwanpur (मकवानपुर), Chitwan (चितवन)
Western Districts:-
  1. West no 1 (पश्चिम १ नम्बर) Dhading (धादिङ्), Nuwakot (नुवाकोट), Rasuwa (रसुवा)
  2. West no 2 (पश्चिम २ नम्बर) Gorkha (गोरखा)
  3. West no 3 (पश्चिम ३ नम्बर) Kaski(कास्की), Lamjung (लमजुङ्), Manang (मनाङ्), Tanahun (तनहुँ)
  4. West no 4 (पश्चिम ४ नम्बर) Syangja(स्याङ्जा), Parbat (पर्वत)
  5. Palimajh Khand (पालिमाझ खण्ड) Kapilvastu (कपिलवस्तु), Nawalparasi (नवलपरासी), Rupendehi (रुपन्देही)
  6. Palpa (पाल्पा) now Palpa (पाल्पा)
  7. Baglung (बाग्लुङ्) now Baglung (बाग्लुङ्), Mustang (मुस्ताङ्), Myagdi (म्याग्दी)
  8. Gulmi (गुल्मी) now Arghakhanchi (अर्घाखाँची), Gulmi (गुल्मी)
Districts in present Mid western region:-
  1. Pyuthan (प्यूठान) now Pyuthan (प्यूठान)
  2. Salyan (सल्यान) now Salyan(सल्यान), Rukum (रुकुम), Rolpa (रोल्पा), Jajarkot (जाजरकोट)
  3. Dailekh (दैलेख) now Dailekh (दैलेख), Surkhet (सुर्खेत)
  4. Jumla (जुम्ला) now Dolpa (डोल्पा), Humla (हुम्ला), Jumla (जुम्ला), Mugu (मुगु), Kalikot (कालीकोट)
  5. Dang (दाङ्) now Dang (दाङ्)
  6. Bankebardia (बाँके बर्दिया) now Banke (बाँके), Bardiya (बर्दिया)
Districts in present Far Western region:-
  1. Doti (डोटी) now Achham(अछाम), Bajhang (बझाङ्), Bajura (बाजुरा), Doti (डोटी)
  2. Baitada (बैतडा) now Baitadi (बैतडी), Darchula (दार्चुला)
  3. Dadeldhura (डडेलधुरा) now Dadeldhura (डडेलधुरा)
  4. Kailali (कैलाली) now Kailali (कैलाली), Kanchanpur (कञ्चनपुर)


After 1961 restructure by King Mahendra

Before Apr 13, 1961 there were 35 districts in Nepal.

On 1961 (BS 2018/1/1) Nepal was divided into 14 Zones and 75 districts by King Mahendra.

In 1972 Nepal was further divided into 4 development regions by King Birendra. And in 1980, the westernmost region was further divided in to two regions creating mid-western and far-western regions.

In 1975 (BS 2032/8/26) Tibrikot (तिब्रीकोट) district was renamed as Kalikot (कालीकोट), because of which Kalikot district is also known as Kanchho Jilla (कान्छो जिल्ला, the Youngest district).

During 1987 Local election there were 33 City Panchayat & 4,015 Village Panchayat in Nepal.



Democratic era

Before the 2015 constitution, Nepal was divided into 5 development regions and 14 zones and 75 districts in nested-hierarchical manner. 75 districts were divided into City and Villages and each city and villages were further sub-divided into 'wards' ranging from minimum 9 (in vdc) to maximum 35 (ktm). For example- Mt Everest was situated in: Eastern Development region, Sagarmatha  zone, Solukhumbu district, Khumjung V.D.C., Ward no 4.

For 1992 Local election (according the new constitution of 1990) 36 Municipalities & 3,995 VDCs were created from old city and village panchayats.

During 1997 Local election there were 58 municipalities and 3,913 VDCs.

Until July 2011, Nepal had 58 municipalities & 4,915 VDCs. These municipalities were:- State 1: Damak, Mechinagar, Bhadrapur, Ilam, Dharan, Itahari, Inaruwa, Biratnagar, Khandbari, Triyuga, Dhankuta, Bhimeshwar, Kamalamai, State 2: Birganj, Gulariya, Malangwa, Siraha, Lahan, Gaur, Kalaiya, Jaleswar, Rajbiraj, Janakpur, State 3: Kathmandu, Kirtipur, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Madhyapur Thimi, Ratnanagar, Bharatpur, Hetauda, Banepa, Dhulikhel, Panauti, Bidur, State 4,5,6: Gorkha, Pokhara, Lekhnath, Butwal-Rupandehi, Siddharthanagar- Rupandehi, Nepalganj, Tikapur-Kailali, Kapilvastu, Byas-Tanahu, Putalibazar-Syangja, Ramgram-Nawalparasi, Baglung, Tansen-Palpa, Waling-Syangja, Narayan-Dailekh, Ghorahi -Dang, Tulsipur-Dang, Birendranagar-Surkhet, State 7: Dhangadhi, Bhim Dutta, Amaragadhi, Dasharathchand, Dipayal-Silgadhi.

Govt declared new 41 municipalities in 2011 July merging 161 VDCs but not implemented.

In May 8 2014 Government added 72 new municipalities (including already announced 41 and merging 283 VDCs together) making total 130 municipalities.

In Dec 2014 Govt again added 61 municipalities making total 191 municipalities and VDCs reduced to 3,276.

Though the new constitution was implemented on 2015 Sep, gov kept changing the old system.

Govt added 26 more municipalities in Sep 2015 and 46 more in 2017 March making total 263 municipalities before the new constitution implemented for local level and after the constitution promulgated.


new structure (after constitution of 2015 implemented)

Provinces vs DR & Zones: Under the new system there are now 7 provinces in Nepal removing the old 5 development regions (DR) and 14 zone system.

Districts: The old 75 districts are kept as it is except two districts (Nawalparasi & Rukum) are split.  In 2017 Aug 21 Government recognized two parts of Nawalparasi & Rukum as separate districts effectively making total 77 districts in Nepal.

Local levels: currently there are total 753 local levels including 6 metropolitan cities, 11 sub-metropolitan cities, 276 municipalities and 460 villages-councils. (see detail


References:-
HISTORICAL ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF NEPAL

Sub-division after the unification

During King Rajendra Bikram and PM Bhimsen Thapa in 1816 A.D. Nepal was divided into 10 districts. All eastern areas from Dudhkoshi river was in one Dhankuta district.


Sub-division of Rana era

During the rule of Rana PM Bir Shamsher (1885-1901) Nepal was further divided into total 32 districts. There were 20 districts in hill and 12 districts in terai. Palpa and Dhankuta were the center (gaunda) of west and east. Terai districts used to be call Tahsil (तहसिल).

Under Dhankuta gauda (धनकुटा गौंडा) there were 6 districts :-
  1. East no 1 (पूर्व १ नम्वर) Kabhre (काभ्रेपलाञ्चोक), Sindhupalchowk (सिन्धुपाल्चोक)
  2. East No 2 (पूर्व २ नम्वर) Dolakha (दोलखा), Ramechhap (रामेछाप)
  3. East No 3 (पूर्व ३ नम्वर) Okhaldhunga (ओखलढुंगा), Solukhumbu (सोलुखुम्बु)
  4. East No 4 (पूर्व ४ नम्वर ) Bhojpur (भोजपुर), Khotang (खोटाङ्)
  5. Ilam (इलाम) now Illam and Panchthar (पाँचथर)
  6. Dhanuta (धनकुटा) now Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha (संखुवासभा), Terathaum (तेह्रथुम), Taplejung (ताप्लेजुङ्)

Other Eastern Districts/Tahsils:-
  1. Jhapa now Jhapa (झापा)
  2. Biratnagar (विराटनगर) now Morang (मोरङ्) and Sunsari (सुनसरी)
  3. Saptari now Saptari (सप्तरी) and Siraha (सिराहा)
  4. Mahottari now Dhanusha (धनुषा), Mahottari (महोत्तरी) and Sarlahi (सर्लाही)
  5. Udayapur now Udayapur (उदयपुर)
  6. Khajhani (खजहनी) now Sindhuli (सिन्धुली)
Central Districts:-
  1. Kathmandu (काठमाडौं) now Kathmandu (काठमाडौं)   
  2. Bhaktapur (भक्तपुर) now Bhaktapur (भक्तपुर)
  3. Lalitpur (ललितपुर) now Lalitpur (ललितपुर)
  4. Birgunj (वीरगञ्ज) now Bara (बारा), Parsa (पर्सा), Rautahat (रौतहट)
  5. Chisapanigadhi (चिसापानीगढी) now Makwanpur (मकवानपुर), Chitwan (चितवन)
Western Districts:-
  1. West no 1 (पश्चिम १ नम्बर) Dhading (धादिङ्), Nuwakot (नुवाकोट), Rasuwa (रसुवा)
  2. West no 2 (पश्चिम २ नम्बर) Gorkha (गोरखा)
  3. West no 3 (पश्चिम ३ नम्बर) Kaski(कास्की), Lamjung (लमजुङ्), Manang (मनाङ्), Tanahun (तनहुँ)
  4. West no 4 (पश्चिम ४ नम्बर) Syangja(स्याङ्जा), Parbat (पर्वत)
  5. Palimajh Khand (पालिमाझ खण्ड) Kapilvastu (कपिलवस्तु), Nawalparasi (नवलपरासी), Rupendehi (रुपन्देही)
  6. Palpa (पाल्पा) now Palpa (पाल्पा)
  7. Baglung (बाग्लुङ्) now Baglung (बाग्लुङ्), Mustang (मुस्ताङ्), Myagdi (म्याग्दी)
  8. Gulmi (गुल्मी) now Arghakhanchi (अर्घाखाँची), Gulmi (गुल्मी)
Districts in present Mid western region:-
  1. Pyuthan (प्यूठान) now Pyuthan (प्यूठान)
  2. Salyan (सल्यान) now Salyan(सल्यान), Rukum (रुकुम), Rolpa (रोल्पा), Jajarkot (जाजरकोट)
  3. Dailekh (दैलेख) now Dailekh (दैलेख), Surkhet (सुर्खेत)
  4. Jumla (जुम्ला) now Dolpa (डोल्पा), Humla (हुम्ला), Jumla (जुम्ला), Mugu (मुगु), Kalikot (कालीकोट)
  5. Dang (दाङ्) now Dang (दाङ्)
  6. Bankebardia (बाँके बर्दिया) now Banke (बाँके), Bardiya (बर्दिया)
Districts in present Far Western region:-
  1. Doti (डोटी) now Achham(अछाम), Bajhang (बझाङ्), Bajura (बाजुरा), Doti (डोटी)
  2. Baitada (बैतडा) now Baitadi (बैतडी), Darchula (दार्चुला)
  3. Dadeldhura (डडेलधुरा) now Dadeldhura (डडेलधुरा)
  4. Kailali (कैलाली) now Kailali (कैलाली), Kanchanpur (कञ्चनपुर)


After 1961 restructure by King Mahendra

Before Apr 13, 1961 there were 35 districts in Nepal.

On 1961 (BS 2018/1/1) Nepal was divided into 14 Zones and 75 districts by King Mahendra.

In 1972 Nepal was further divided into 4 development regions by King Birendra. And in 1980, the westernmost region was further divided in to two regions creating mid-western and far-western regions.

In 1975 (BS 2032/8/26) Tibrikot (तिब्रीकोट) district was renamed as Kalikot (कालीकोट), because of which Kalikot district is also known as Kanchho Jilla (कान्छो जिल्ला, the Youngest district).

During 1987 Local election there were 33 City Panchayat & 4,015 Village Panchayat in Nepal.



Democratic era

Before the 2015 constitution, Nepal was divided into 5 development regions and 14 zones and 75 districts in nested-hierarchical manner. 75 districts were divided into City and Villages and each city and villages were further sub-divided into 'wards' ranging from minimum 9 (in vdc) to maximum 35 (ktm). For example- Mt Everest was situated in: Eastern Development region, Sagarmatha  zone, Solukhumbu district, Khumjung V.D.C., Ward no 4.

For 1992 Local election (according the new constitution of 1990) 36 Municipalities & 3,995 VDCs were created from old city and village panchayats.

During 1997 Local election there were 58 municipalities and 3,913 VDCs.

Until July 2011, Nepal had 58 municipalities & 4,915 VDCs. These municipalities were:- State 1: Damak, Mechinagar, Bhadrapur, Ilam, Dharan, Itahari, Inaruwa, Biratnagar, Khandbari, Triyuga, Dhankuta, Bhimeshwar, Kamalamai, State 2: Birganj, Gulariya, Malangwa, Siraha, Lahan, Gaur, Kalaiya, Jaleswar, Rajbiraj, Janakpur, State 3: Kathmandu, Kirtipur, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Madhyapur Thimi, Ratnanagar, Bharatpur, Hetauda, Banepa, Dhulikhel, Panauti, Bidur, State 4,5,6: Gorkha, Pokhara, Lekhnath, Butwal-Rupandehi, Siddharthanagar- Rupandehi, Nepalganj, Tikapur-Kailali, Kapilvastu, Byas-Tanahu, Putalibazar-Syangja, Ramgram-Nawalparasi, Baglung, Tansen-Palpa, Waling-Syangja, Narayan-Dailekh, Ghorahi -Dang, Tulsipur-Dang, Birendranagar-Surkhet, State 7: Dhangadhi, Bhim Dutta, Amaragadhi, Dasharathchand, Dipayal-Silgadhi.

Govt declared new 41 municipalities in 2011 July merging 161 VDCs but not implemented.

In May 8 2014 Government added 72 new municipalities (including already announced 41 and merging 283 VDCs together) making total 130 municipalities.

In Dec 2014 Govt again added 61 municipalities making total 191 municipalities and VDCs reduced to 3,276.

Though the new constitution was implemented on 2015 Sep, gov kept changing the old system.

Govt added 26 more municipalities in Sep 2015 and 46 more in 2017 March making total 263 municipalities before the new constitution implemented for local level and after the constitution promulgated.


new structure (after constitution of 2015 implemented)

Provinces vs DR & Zones: Under the new system there are now 7 provinces in Nepal removing the old 5 development regions (DR) and 14 zone system.

Districts: The old 75 districts are kept as it is except two districts (Nawalparasi & Rukum) are split.  In 2017 Aug 21 Government recognized two parts of Nawalparasi & Rukum as separate districts effectively making total 77 districts in Nepal.

Local levels: currently there are total 753 local levels including 6 metropolitan cities, 11 sub-metropolitan cities, 276 municipalities and 460 villages-councils. (see detail


References:-