Timeline of Madhesh

Background 

1951 Feb 13: First government of Nepal after the end of Rana Dynasty there were 10 members including 1 Madheshi leader Bhadrakali Mishra as he was somehow linked with Nepali Congress and a Madheshi as well.
1959 Election: 9 political parties took part. Terai Congress, led by Badananda Jha, was focused in Terai-Madhesh region of Nepal. Terai Congress did not win any seat among total 109 but got 2.1% popular vote. Another party, one fraction of Nepal Prajaparishad was led by a Madheshi leader Bhadrakali Mishra. This party, however, won 1 seat and got 3.3% popular vote.

1960 Dec 15: King Mahendra imposed Panchayati System banning all political parties in Nepal.

The democratic era after 1990

1985: Gajendra Narayan Singh founded Nepal Sadbhawana Party (NSP) and remained the president of the party until he died on 2002 Jan 23. This party was the first Madheshi party in modern Nepali politics after the restoration of the democracy.

1991 May 12: General Election. NSP had 75 candidates in 205 constituencies and won 6 seats (4.1% popular vote) in the election. Many ethnic Madheshi leaders were elected from mainstream parties of that time like Nepali Congress, CPN UML, and RPP.

1993: NSP-R founded Ramjanam Tiwari after breaking up with NSP.

1994 Nov 15 : Midterm Election: Winners were UML 88, NC 83, RPP 20, NWPP 4, NSP 2 and Independents 7. NSP became 5th largest party in the parliament winning 3 seats and 3.49% popular votes. Winners from NSP were Gajendra Narayan Singh (Saptrai 2), Anish Ansari (Saptari 3), and Hridayas Tripathi (Nawalparasi 3). In Sarlahi 2 Rajendra Mahato was defeated by Meena Pandey of Nepali Congress.

1994 Nov 30: Manmohan Adhikari of CPN UML became PM leading minority government. 

1995 Sep 12: Sher B Deuba of NC became PM leading  collation government of NC, RPP and NSP. 

1997 Mar 12: Lokendra B Chand of RPP became PM leading a collation government of UML, RPP and NSP.

1997 Oct 7: Surya B Thapa of RPP became PM leading a collation government of NC and RPP.

1998 Apr 15: Girija P Koirala of NC became PM again leading minority government. 

1998: Samajbadi Janta Dal founded by Rameshwor Raya Yadav, Rajendra Mahato and Hridayesh Tripathi splited from NSP.

1999 General Election: Nepali congress got majority 111 seats among total 205 followed by CPN UML 71 and RPP (Thapa) 11, NSP 5, R Janamorcha 5, S Janamorcha 1 and NWPP 1.  NSP became 4th largest party winning 5 seats with 3.22% popular votes. Winners were Badri Mandal (Morang 7), Rajendra Mahato (Sarlahi 2), Mrigendra Kumar Singh Yadav (Saptrai 5), Hridayes Tripathi (Nawalparasi 3), and Yagyajit Shah (Rupendehi 5). Party president Gajendra Narayan Singh was defeated in Saptari 2. 

1999 May 31: Krishna P Bhattarai of NC became PM as a majority leader. 

2000 Mar 22: Girija P Koirala of NC became PM again.

2001 Jul 26: Sher B Deuba of NC became PM again.

2002 Oct 4: King Gyanendra dissolved Deuba government for being incapable.

2002: Gajendra Narayan Singh died. Badri Mandal became new party president.

2003: NSP (Anandidevi) led by Anandidevi Singh, widow of Gajendra N Singh, broke away from NSP. NSP-A played a key role to restoration of democracy in Nepal in 2006 being one of the member of 7-party alliance.

2006 Apr 6-24: 19 days People's movement organized by 7-party alliance. NSP-Anandidevi was one party among them. King Gyanendra reinstated the dissolved parliament which was elected in 1999 as per the demand of agitators.

2006 Apr 25: Girija P Koirala of NC became PM leading government of agitating 7-party alliance.

2007 Jan 15: The reinstated Parliament promulgated the Interim constitution of Nepal 2007. This constitution facilitated the election of Constituent Assembly and creation of a new constitution of Nepal. 

It provisioned the outgoing parliament to be replaced by a new "Interim legislature" of 330 members. Being one party in 7-party alliance Madhesh based party NSP-Anandidevi got 4 nominated seats in the interim parliament. Other parties were NC 85, CPNM 83, CPNUML 83, United Left front etc.

2007: After Mandal expelled from the NSP, the new president Laxman Lal Karn merged NSP with NSP-A.

Madheshi upraising of 2007 and 2008

2007 Jan 16: After the implementation of interim constitution of 2007 an organization called "Madheshi Janadhikar Forum (MJF)" led by former CPN UML leader Upendra Yadav called for an agitation.

2007 Feb 8: after second request of PM GP Koirala for talks MJF suspended its agitation.


2007 Feb 19: MJF announced its fresh agitation.

2007 Mar 21: Gaur incident: 29 people killed in the conflict between Maoists & MJF.


2007 May 10: MJF leader Upendra Yadav and Minister for Peace Ram Chandra Paudel talked.


2007 Aug 30: Girija P Koirala government made 22 point deal with the agitators. Later, MJF transformed itself into the political party and contested in the Constituent Assembly election of 2008.


* Many Madheshi leaders from Nepali Congress, CPN UML, Nepal Sadbhawana Party and RPP saw that as an opportunity.

2007 Sep-Dec: MJF itself split. Bhagyanath Gupta, Kishor Kumar Bishwash, Ram Kumar Sharma and Jitendra Sonal expelled from the original MJF and founded their own MJF-Madhesh after that.

2007 Sep: Rajendra Mahato & Laxman Lal Karn split from Nepal Sadbhawana Party (Anandidevi) to form their own Sadbawana Party.

2007 Dec: Former Nepali Congress leader Mahanta Thakur founded his Madhesh based party named Terai-Madhesh Loktantrik Party (TMLP). Mahendra Raya Yadav (UML), Hridayesh Tripathi (NSP), Sarbendra Nath Shukla (RPP), Anish Ansari (NSP), Ram Chandra Kushwaha (NC) etc were other founding members of TMLP.

Constituent Assembly (CA) election of 2008


2008 Apr 10: CPN Maoist, Nepali Congress, CPN-UML became 1st, 2nd, and 3rd largest party respectively. Madhesh based parties like MJF, and TMLP became 4th and 5th largest parties winning 54 & 21 seats respectively among total 601 seats of the CA. Sadbhawana Party won 9 and NSP-A won 3 seats in that election.  


2008 May 28: First Constituent Assembly (CA) meeting declares Nepal to be federal democratic republic by 560-4 votes. (12)

2008 July: Constituent Assembly elected President and Vice-President of Nepal from Madheshi community. Nepali congress candidate Ram Baran Yadav defeated another madheshi candidate Ram Raja Prasad Singh (Maoist's candidate) and became the first president of Nepal. Parmananda Jha from MJF elected as the first vice-president of Nepal.


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2008 Aug 18: Maoist leader Prachanda became Prime Minister leading collation government of CPN-M, CPN-UML,MJF, Sadbhawana party etc. 4 MJF leaders of that time Upendra Yadav, Bijay Kumar Gachhadar, Jay Prakash Gupta, Renu Kumari Yadav, and Sadbhawana Party leader Rajendra Mahato became ministers.

2009 May 25: CPN UML leader Madhav Kumar Nepal became Prime Minister leading the collation government of CPN-UML, NC, MJF, Nepal Sadbhawana party etc. MJF leader of that time Bijay Kumar Gachhadar became deputy PM. Other MJF leaders like Sharad Singh Bhandari, Sarbadev Ojha and Sadbhawana leaders like Rajendra Mahato, Mrigendra Kumar Singh Yadav etc became ministers.

2010 Jan 20: State Reconstruction Committee of CA passes federal structure of 14 states supported by UCPNM and UML. 14 proposed states are: Limbuwan, Kirat, Sherpa, Sunkoshi, Newa, Tamsaling, Narayani, Tamuwan, Magarat, Jadan, Karnali, Khaptad, Mithila-Bhojpura-Koch-Madhesh, Lumbini-Awadh-Tharuwan.

2011 Feb 6: CPN UML leader Jhal Nath Khanal became Prime Minister leading the collation government of CPN UML, CPN M and MJF. Upendra Yadav became deputy PM.  

2011 Aug 29: CPN M leader Baburam Bhattarai became Prime Minister leading the collation government of CPN M and various madheshi parties. MJF leader Bijaya Kumar Gachhadar became deputy PM again. Other MJF leaders Sarat Singh Bhandari, Jaya Prakash Gupta, Nandan Kumar Dutt, Mohamad Wokil Musalman, TMLP leaders Hridayesh Tripathi, Mahendra Yadav, Sanghiya Sadbhawna Party leader Anil Jha, NSP-A leader Sarita Giri and NSP leader Rajendra Mahato became various ministers again.

2012 Jan 19: State Reconstruction Commission proposes two separate federal structures, one with 11 states (including one non territorial state) and another with 6 states.


2012 Apr 28: UML presented the new proposal to federate the country into 12 states. (L)

2013 Mar 14: Supreme Court Chief Justice Khil Raj Regmi became Prime Minister to run a fair election as per the agreement between major parties. 

2013 Nov 19: 2nd Constituent Assembly election. CPN Maosit and Madhesh based parties performed very poor considering the previous election.



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Constituent Assembly (CA) election of 2013

NC 196, CPN UML 175, CPN MC 80, RPP Nepal 24


Madhesh Based Parties
Madheshi Janaadhikar Forum, Nepal (Loktantrik) - 14 (Gachhadar)
Madheshi Janaadhikar Forum, Nepal - 10 (Upendra Yadav)
Terai Madhesh Loktantrik Party - 11 (Mahanta Thakur)
Sadbhawana Party - 6 (Rajendra Mahto)
Rastriya Madhesh Samajbadi Party - 3 (Sharat Singh Bhandari)
Terai Madhesh Sadbhawana Party - 3 (Mahendra Raya Yadav)
Madeshi Janadikar Forum (Gantantrik) - 1
Sanghiya Sadhbhawana Party - 1
Madhesh Samata Party Nepal - 1
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2014 Feb 25: NC leader Shushil Koirala became Prime Minister leading the collation government of  Nepali Congress & CPN UML. This government promulgated the constitution of 2015 in 2015 Sep 20.

2014 Apr 4: 67 membered constitution draft committee sworn-in by CA chief Subaschandra Nemwang. Committee will have total 73 members (link)


2014 Aug 3/4: Indian PM Narendra Modi visited Nepal.


2014 Oct 12: Nepali Congress proposed two model of six- or seven-states (Link)

2014 Oct 27: CPN-UML proposed 4 states model. Each states will consists hills and terai regions. The proposed four states are: Eastern, Central, Gandak & Karnali. (Link) Later other leaders of UML criticized this idea. UML officially supports Congress 6 or 7 states model. (Link)


2014 Nov 26/27: 18th SAARC summit in Kathmandu.

30-party front of UCPN Maoist and Madheshis

2014 Dec - 2015 June: UCPN Maoist led 30-party front ran various agitation against the government.

2015 Jan 19: Maoist member Umesh Yadav came in news when Maoists broke chairs in the Constituent Assembly. 30-party alliance led by Maoist and Madheshi front has been protesting against the government.

2015 Apr 7-9: 30-party alliance (CPNM and Madheshis) called for nationwide strike.

2015 Apr 25: Earthquake in Nepal

2015 June 9: 16-points agreement between four major political parties (NC, UML, Maoist and MJF-Democratic), agreed on 8 state model. But boundaries are not yet finalized. Maoist led 30-party alliance formally split. (li)

2015 Jun : Sanghiya Samajbadi Forum (SSFN), Nepal: The original MJFN led by Upndra Yadav, the Federal Socialist Party Nepal and the Khas Samabeshi Party merged to form Sanghiya Samajbadi Forum. SSFN started to gain soft influence in eastern hills as well.

2015 June 30: Chairman of constitution draft committee Krishna Prasad Sitaula presented the draft of the constitution in the CA.

2015 Jul 2: CA started to discuss over the draft.

Third Madhesh & First Tharuhat agitation 2015/2016

2015 Aug 8: agreement between four major political parties (Congress, UML, Maoist and MJF-Democratic) on 6 state model. Tharu forces in the western Terai came into action demanding separate Tharuhat/Tharuwan state after this. Daily protests happened in the western terai.

2015 Aug 21: After several protests in two weeks 3 major political parties (Congress, UML & Maoist) now agree on a new 7 states model. 4th party from earlier agreement (MJF-democratic) opposed the agreement.

Many regional organizations and parties protested against earlier proposed 6 states model demanding:- Akhanda Sudur-paschim (undivided far-west region), Akhanda Madhya-paschim (undivided mid-west region), Tharuhat Pradesh (from Nawalparasi to Kanchanpur excluding hill districts), Karnali pradesh (including present Karnali zone), Akhanda Baglung district (not to divide present baglung district) etc

2015 Aug 248 police officers (including SSP Laxman Neupane, inspectors Balaram Bishta and Keshav Bohora and 2 others from Nepal police and 2 from APF), one child and 3 protesters killed in Kailali district in a violent protest organized by Tharuhat/ Tharuwan united front. Some police officers were burnt alive. Other 17 from Police and 21 from APF were injured in the incident. Tharu protesters are demanding Tharuhat state in future federal Nepal. Following the incident emergency meeting of the National Security Council in Kathmandu decided to deploy the army in Kailali, Sarlahi and Rautahat districts. Police started to react hard after this incident.


2015 Sep 1: 5 protesters killed in violent protest organized by Madheshi front in Bara & Persa districts of south eastern Nepal. Tharu protest in south western Nepal is still on going.

2015 Sep 5: Three major political parties (Congress, UML & Maoists) agree to present common amendment proposal on the Bill of the new constitution to address ongoing protests on Madhesh and Tharuwan regions. Tharuhat demand will be addressed by 'state commission'. Four other commissions will be formed- for Janajatis, Muslims, Madheshi and Tharu communities. Baglung district will not be divided. Division of Rukum district will be reviewed by 'state commission'. Forth party in the meeting MJF-Democratic opposed this agreement and said it will boycott the voting process in the Constituent Assembly (CA).


2015 Sep 9: 4 people killed in Madheshi protest in Jaleshwor city of Mahottari district and 1 killed in Bhardah Janakpur.  Three major parties (NC, UML, Maoists) meeting today again called Madheshi & Tharuhat parties for talk. They decided to pause the constitution process for 2 days to make environment for that.

2015 Sep 11:  3 protesters killed in Janakpur, and 2 killed in Jaleshwor in violent Madheshi protest today. Protesters also killed 1 Junior police office A.S.I Dhaman Bahadur B.K. in Mahottari district.

2015 Sep 13 Sun: first 3 articles of Nepal's future constitution endorsed by the constituent assembly.  Articles 1 and 2 were endorsed unanimously where as article 3 by majority. Its is provisioned that each articles must be endorsed clause-by-clause. There are total 302 articles and 9 appendix in the proposed constitution. 541 members among current 598 were present in the meeting. Members of protesting Madheshi parties did not attend. This is said to be the highest attendance of this CA so far.


2015 Sep 14 Mon: articles 4-57 endorsed by constituent assembly meeting. New constitution is expected to be issued on Sep 20th (Ashoj 3, 2072 B.S.)

2015 Sep 15 Tue : articles 58 to 176 endorsed by the constituent assembly meeting today. CA meeting also unanimously passed a bill about "the issuance of new constitution on Sep 20" to make president lawfully liable to attend the constitution issue ceremony. Some people believe that President Ram Baran Yadav is against the constitution. It is provisioned that a new president will be elected within a month of new constitution.

4 people killed in Madheshi protest near Madhendra Highway in Bethri, Rupendehi district.

2015 Sep 16 Wed (Bhadau 30, 2072 B.S.):  Nepal's Constitution 2072 B.S. endorsed by the constituent assembly meeting by 2/3 majority. Out of total 598 current CA members 507 voted for YES (84.78%), 25 Voted No and 66 were absent. 25 CA members who voted against the constitution were the leaders of RPP-Nepal, a Hindu royalist party.

Among 598 current total members 532 (88.96%) were present in the meeting. 54 members from 8 Madheshi Parties [Sanghiya Samajbadi Forum (15), MJF Democratic (14), TMLP (11), Sadbhawana (6), Terai Madhesh Sadbhawana (3), Rastriya Madhesh Samajbadi (3),  MJF-Republic (1), Sanghiya Sadbhawana (1)] and members from 2 Tharuhat parties [Tharuhat Terai (2), Sanghiya Loktantrik Rastriya Manch-Tharuhat (1)]  and independent member (Chandreshwor Jha) has been absent since weeks in favor of Madhesh and Tharuhat protests. Congress, UML, 1 Maoist and 3 other lawmakers from 3 small parties also did not attend the meeting. CA has total 601 seats but 2 nominated seats and 1 seat of deceased RPP leader Surya B Thapa is vacant.

Articles 177 to 308 were also endorsed clause-by-clause by constituent assembly earlier today. The constitution has total 308 articles including 6 added today.

2015 Sep 18 Fri (Ashoj 1): 537 CA member signed the 5 official copies of endorsed new constitution today. 4 CA members who were absent in voting (Rajya Laxmi Golchha, Bishwendra Paswan, Meghraj Nepali Nishad & Laxman Rajbanshi) also signed the constitution despite of their bad health condition. Chairman of constituent assembly Subash Chandra Nembang then certified the constitution.

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's special envoy to Nepal S. Jayasankar arrived Kathmandu this morning. He met with UML president KP Oli, Various Madheshi leaders, UCPML leders Prachanda, Baburam bhattarai etc, President Rambaran Yadav and Prime Minister Sushil Koirala throughout the day. He put pressure on the leaders to delay the promulgation of the constitution.


2015 Sep 19 Sat (Ashoj 2): Three major political parties once again jointly appealed agitating Madheshi and Tharuhat parties for dialogue. They say they are ready for adjusting the boundary of proposed 7 provinces. Madheshi parties refused the dialogue. Chairman of CA Subhaschandra Nemwang also appealed protesting parties to sign on the new constitution before its promulgation.

A new political front is established in Madhesh by Sadbhawana Party, splinter CPN Maoist led by Matrika Yadav & Terai Madhesh Rastriya Abhiyan led by JP Gupta. Leader of the new front is president of Sadbhawana Party Rajendra Mahto. Before this Sadbhawana party was in Samyukta Loktantrik Madheshi Morcha (United Democratic Madheshi Front- UDMF) with other three parties (Sanghiya Samajbadi Forum led by Upendra Yadav, Terai Madesh Loktantrik Party led by Mahantha Thakur & Terai Madhesh Sadbhawana Party led by Mahendra Raya Yadav. UDMF has been leading Madheshi protest since more than a month.

2015 Sep 20 Sun (Ashoj 3, 2072 BS): President Dr. Ram Baran Yadav promulgated the Constitution of Nepal in the last meeting of Constituent Assembly. 

The new constitution is welcomed throughout the country with fireworks and candle lights. Madheshi and Tharuhat parties celebrated the day as a black day. Indian foreign ministry issued a statement saying they have noted that Nepal got a new constitution, instead of welcoming it. (L)

After the promulgation of the constitution, the CA now has automatically transferred into a regular parliament which will last 2 more years.

After the Constitution of 2015 : Blockade and Welcome 

2015 Sep 21 Mon (Ashoj 4, 2072): Three major political parties (Congress, UML & Maoists) organized a combined rally in Kathmandu to welcome the new constitution today. Prachanda announced that "they are not YES man of India."

Indian Foreign ministry issued second statement today about their concern in the new constitution. India indirectly threatened Nepal to seal the open Indo-Nepal border. India had initially made some unsuccessful attempts to delay / block the constitution. (L)

ChinaJapanPakistanUKEUSwitzerland and Norway welcomed the new constitution.

2015 Sep 22 Tue (Ashoj 5, 2072 BS): Hashtag #BackOffIndia has made the worldwide trend in twitter today. Nepali people are furious about Indian intervention in Nepal. India is angry that Nepal democratically issued the constitution and rejected the Indian advice.

United StatesGermany and France welcomed the new Constitution in the statements issued by their foreign ministry today. (L1) (L2)


2015 Sep 23 Wed (Ashoj 6, 2072 BS): Indian Express, a major newspaper in India, published that India gave list of "7-point demand" to Nepal for amendment of the constitution. But the given Indian demands are different than the demands of protesting Madheshi parties. Indian foreign ministry though rejected this news. (L1)(L2)

After having consultation in Delhi Indian ambassador to Nepal Ranjit Ray had returned Kathmandu this morning and met the Nepali prime minister.  He also met Prachanda in the day and clarified that 7-points demands published in the media are not Indian demands.

Russian foreign ministry acknowledged that Nepal's new constitution meets the generally accepted standard.

2015 Sep 24 Thu (Ashoj 7, 2072 BS): India started blocking the Indo-Nepal border to pressurize Nepal through control of supply. They did not let enter any Trucks through one of the major southern border point Biratnagar today. Similarly only 12 Trucks came through another southern point Belhiya-Rupendehi where 600 vehicles used to come every day. Only 6 vehicles entered through eastern port Kakadbhitta where about 150 trucks used to pass normally. The Kakadbhitta border is significantly far from protesting Madhesh are. Birgunj check post was interrupted by Madhesi protesters. (L)

2015 Sep 25 Fri (Asoj 8, 2072 BS): Nepali Foreign Ministry has asked clarification from Indian Ambassador about Indian blockade in the border. Indian Foreign ministry also issued a press note today and claimed that the obstructions are due to protests on the Nepalese side. But India has been providing logistic support to the Madheshi protest and has started to control the flow in Indo-Nepal border. And following their government many major Indian media has has started giving false information about the constitution and spreading propaganda. (L1)(L2) (L3)

2015 Sep 26 Sat (Ashoj 9, 2072 BS): Influential UCPN Maoist leader and former prime minister Dr. Baburam Bhattarai left the party and his membership of parliament. He was active in constitution making process and had headed the political dialogue and consensus committee in the constituent assembly. (L1)

Government of Nepal has made a conclusion that the Indian Government has intentionally blocked the supply of good through the Indo-Nepal border. GON decided to take the matter to international forum as India violating universal right of a landlocked country and WTO free trade agreements. Because of the blockade fuel has become scarce in Nepal. Government has decided to imposed even-odd system (even-odd vehicle number plate to drive on even or odd days) from Sunday to control the use of petroleum. (L2)

India has continued "unannounced blocking" of all of check point of Indo-Nepal border in the name of safety. But most of the blocked check points are way too far from Madhesh region and in normal condition. Two major check points (Birgunj and Nepalgunj) are disturbed by Mesheshi protesting in Indian soil and  in 'no mans land' on the border and with the logistic and physical help of Indian police and public. (L3)

2015 Sep 27 Sun (Ashoj 10, 2072 BS): Unannounced Indian blockade on Landlocked Nepal has created severe effect to general Nepali people. Scarcity of petroleum and LPG has its bad effect from all kind of transportation to Kitchen. People are protesting in front of Indian embassy in Nepal. (L1)

Madheshi protesters have continued to protest from Indian side of border. Indian police and public are openly supporting the protest. (L2)

2015 Sep 28 Mon (Ashoj 11, 2072 BS): Association of Cable TV operators in Nepal decided to stop broadcasting Indian channels in Nepal from tomorrow in the protest of unannounced Indian blockage on Landlocked Nepal.

Vice president of Nepal has issued a statement in support of Madheshi protest. He was heavily criticized in Nepal and suspended for some time (aug 2009-feb 2010) after taking oath of the office in Hindi language. He was reinstalled in the post after he retook the oath in his native Maithili language.

2015 Sep 29 Tue (Ashoj 12, 2072 BS): Baburam Bhattarai, splinter leader of UCPN Maoist, has addressed a rally in Jahakpurdham. He is believed to be sympathetic to Madheshi protest. But as soon as he left the program the stage was burn by the protesters. There are many parties, fronts and groups involved in Madhesh protest. Sometime they protest together and sometimes separately.

Nepal itself has restricted to import fruits and vegetables from India in protest of Unannounced Indian blockade in Nepal mainly in Petroleum and Natural gas. Indian custom has been loose on fruits and vegetable trucks to show the world they have not done any sanction in Nepal. Nepal is believed to be relatively self sufficient in fruits and vegetables.

Oct 2, 2015 Fri : On the first meeting of transformed parliament today Prime Minister Sushil koirala has announced to resign from his post to give the way for new government. The new constitution has provisioned to from a new national government within a week of the first meeting. President has called political parties to form new government according to Article 298 (2).

Unofficial dialogue between protesting Tharu and Madheshi parties and the government is still going on. They are yet to reach on the conclusion. Meanwhile the protest has reached 45th day so far.

Oct 3, 2015 Sat: After the criticism in both Nepal and India the Government of India has agreed to lift its unannounced-blockade on Indo-Nepal border. Indian foreign ministry informed about this to Nepali foreign ministry. Also Indian ambassador to Nepal informed this to Nepali PM. India had been cutting the supply of essential goods, medicine and petroleum to landlocked Nepal since 10 days without acknolodging it.

Oct 4, 2015 Sun: Protesting Madheshi front has formed a 4-member dialogue team for talks with the government. The four members are Laxmanlal karna from Sadbhawana, Sarbendranath Sukla from TMLP, Lalbabu raut from Forum and Ramnaresh Raya from TMSP.

Despite of their announcement yesterday India has continued its blockade on Indo-Nepal border. Sunday out of 110 sent petroleum tankers they fueled only 10. Nepal oil corporation has refused to take just 10 tankers saying India is cheating to showoff the world.

Oct 5, 2015 Mon (Ashoj 18): Major 3 parties in government and Madheshi morcha had dialogue today. Congress leader Mahesh Acharya, UML leader Agni Kharel and Maoist leader Narayan Kaji Shrestha Prakash represented the government. Madheshi front presented 35 points amendments in the constitution. Dialogue was completed without entering into political matter.

Oct 7, 2015 Wed: Today's dialogue between Government and Madheshi front has ended without conclusion. Madheshi front has demanded clear cut two provinces in terai region.

Youths have protested in front of Indian embassy in Kathmandu with petrol in bottol. India has blocked supply of oil in Nepal but Indian Embassy yesterday had requested oil from Nepal oil corporation for their use. After that hastag #DonateOiltoIndianEmbassy had got viral in twitter.

Oct 8, 2015 Thu: Government of Nepal has opened the global tender for importing petroleum products in Nepal. Indian oil corporation had the monopoly in Nepal's oil market before this.

Oct 9, 2015 Fri: Prime Minister Suhil Koirala has resigned from his post. Election of the new PM is due Sunday in the parliament. UML president KP Oli has announced the candidacy which is proposed in the parliament by Maoist president Prachanda and supported by RPP Nepal president Kamal thapa. UML, Maoist and RPP-N are second, third and forth largest parties in the parliament. Currently 3 parties have 291combined seats out of current 598 total seats.

Oct 10, 2015 Sat: PM Koirala has announced his candidacy for next PM. He had said not to be the candidate in the yesterday's meeting of his party Nepali congress. India is being blamed to be the player behind this.

Election is due tomorrow morning. Another PM candidate KP Oli has said to have majority members in his favor SO FAR.



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2015 Oct 11: KP Sharma Oli elected as new Prime Minister of Nepal by the parliament. Out of total 587 votes Oli got 338 votes. Another candidate current PM Sushil Koirala got only 249 votes.

Protesting Madheshi and Tharuhat parties also involved in the election process. United Madheshi front (S.S. Forum, TMLP, Sadbhawana, TMSP) voted in favor of Sushil Koirala. MJF Democratic voted KP Oli making 8-point deal with UML.

Nepal's two neighbors India and Chin congratulated the new PM. Indian PM Narendra Modi congratulate on the phone and invited him to visit India. Chinese ambassador to Nepal Wu Chuntai went to Oli's residence in Balkot.

2015 Oct 12: PM elect KP Oli has taken oath as the Prime Minister of Nepal. Bijaya Gachhadar, leader of MJF Democratic and Kamal Thapa, leader of RPP Nepal became vice-prime ministers. MJF is one of the protesting Madhehsi party and RPP Nepal is a far right Hindu royalist party.

Chinese PM Li Keqiang has congratulated the new PM of Nepal.

2015 Oct 13: Unofficial Indian blockade on Nepal has got loose since the election of new PM. Significant numbers of loaded trucks have entered Nepal yesterday and today.

Leaders of protesting Madheshi parties are criticized by madheshi people for their involvement in PM election. Mr. Brijesh Kumar Gupta, vice-leader of TMLP and Sarita Giri, joint-president of Sadbhawana Party led by Ani Kumar Jha has resigned from their post.



2015 Oct 16: Onsari Gharti unanimously elected as the Speaker of the parliament. She was deputy-speaker before. Similarly Ganga Yadav unanimously elected as the Deputy-Speaker. 

Gharti was the candidate of UCPN Maoist and Yadav was the candidate of RPP Nepal. Ruling parties UML, Maoist, RPP Nepal and MJF democratic had agreement on this before. Main opposition Nepali Congress also supported both candidate.

2015 Oct 19: On the last day of his 3 day visit Nepali deputy PM and foreign minister Kamal Thapa met Indian PM Narendra modi today. Yesterday he had met Indian foreign minster Sushma Swaraj and Home minister Rajnath Singh. Indian leaders assured the free flow of goods through India-Nepal border points. But despite of their several commitment India has still put blockade on the supply.

Government formed a team to talk with protesting Madheshi front. The dialogue team is led by Deputy PM Kamal Thapa and the members are Minister of Law Agni Kharel, Minister of general administration Rekha Sharma and Minister without portfolio Ramjanam Chaudhari.

2015 Oct 20: Government and Madheshi front had brief dialogue today in the office of TMLP in Bijulibazar, Kathmandu. Kamal Thapa, Agni Sharma, Rajanam Chaudhari and Rekha Sharma represented the government and Mahantha Thakur and Hridayesh Tripathi represented the front today. Since many of the members of dialogue teams were unavailable, talk was postponed after the introduction.

2015 Oct 22: Today Nepali people celebrated Vijaya-dashami, the main festival in the year, without proper fuel for the vehicle and enough LPG gas for cooking. About 2 million people from every corner of Nepal living in the capital city Kathmandu used to visit their hometown every year for this festival.

2015 Oct 24: European Union has requested India to open its unofficial blockade on Nepal. Jean Lambert, chair of the committee about South Asia in the European parliament issued a press release about it.

2015 Oct 25: Government and Madheshi front had dialogue today. It was said to be positive. Next talk will be in Kartik 12. Kamal Thapa, Agni Kharel, Rekha Sharma and Ramjanam Chaudhari represented the government and Mahantha Thakur, Hridayesh Tripathi, Laxmanlal Karna, Lalbahadur Raut and Ramnaresh Yadav represented the front today. 

Madheshi protest is in its 72nd day today and 32nd day of protest on Indo-Nepal border.

Oct 28, 2015 Wed :  Bidhya Devi Bhandari elected as the Second President (also the first female president) of Nepal. Among total 597 MPs 549 voted except protesting Madheshi parties. Bhandari, candidate from UML supported by all parties in government, got 327 votes whereas defeated candidate from Nepali Congress Kulbahadur Gurung got 214 votes.

Nepal Oil Corporation (NOC) has signed MoU with PetroChina (china's largest and one of the state-owned petroleum company) to buy petroleum products. Before this Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) had monopoly in Nepal's oil market. Nepal used to buy petroleum products of worth $1.3 billion from India annually. Before some days China had also announced to give Nepal 1000 metric tonne petroleum products immediately on grant basis amid serious fuel crisis.

China has expressed its readiness for "friendly" talks with India about Nepal and acute fuel shortage due to a blockade of border points. Spokesman of Chinas foreign ministry Lu Kang told this in a media briefing today.


2015 Oct 29: Government and Madheshi front had dialogue today in the foreign ministry, Kathmandu. Kamal Thapa, Agni Kharel, Rekha Sharma and Ramjanam Chaudhari represented the government were as Laxmanlal karn, Hridiesh Tripathi and Lalbabu Raut represented the front. They agreed to form a committee to monitor the injured and under trial protesters. Committee members are Agni Kharel and Lalbabu Raut. 

Newly elected President Bidhya Bhandari has taken oath of the office. Outgoing president Rambaran Yadav has left the presidential house "shital niwas". He is now shifted to the official VVIP residence in Bhainsepati.

China, India and USA has congratulated the newly elected president of Nepal.

2015 Oct 31: Maoist candidate Nand Kishor Pun "Pasang" elected as the vice-president of Nepal defeating Nepali congress candidate Amiya Kumar Yadav by 325 -212 votes out of total casted 547 votes. Pun was the chief commander of Maoist's Pepole liberation army since Sep 2008 until it was disbanded. Protesting madheshi parties did not involve in the election.

2015 Nov 1: Government and Madheshi front had dialogue today in office of SS Forum in Tinkune, Kathmandu. Government agreed on medication of injured protesters and compensation to the family of died protesters. Government "noted" the demand of re-drawing of provinces and said they need the political consensus on any change in declared provinces. The Madheshi protest is in 79th day.

12 tankers of fuel trucks have entered Nepal until this morning from China through Rasuwa border. First 3 tankers came last night. Each tanker carry approx 9,000 to 12,000 liters. China has agreed to supply 33% fuel Nepal need.


2015 Nov 2: One Indian citizen named Ashish Kumar Ram involved in Madheshi protest killed in Birganj today. Several hundreds protesters had attacked the police post near Indo-Nepal border. Protesters also burn down Birgunj post office and Mahuhani police office. Earlier today, Nepal police had cleared the border to pass over 150 indian trucks into India. Indian PM Narendra Modi called Nepali PM KP Oli on phone and expressed his concern about the death of Indian protester.

Instead of apologizing the involvement of Indian citizens in Madheshi protest, Indian foreign ministry and Indian embassy in Nepal has said that the killed protester was innocent.

2015 Nov 3: China has said Nepal's matter should be solved without outside interference. Foreign Ministry spokesperson Hua Chunying said “China is closely following the situation in Nepal. differences should be resolved properly through consultations in a peaceful manner with no interference from outside, restore stability back to Nepal as soon as possible and stay committed to post disaster reconstruction and long-term development of Nepal”

2015 Nov 4: Nepal has raised "the issue of Indian blockade" in international forum. Deputy PM and Foreign minister Kamal Thapa said "any exogenous interest will only complicate matters" in the meeting of universal periodic review about Nepal in Jeneva. Thapa was replying the Indian aligation about violance in Nepal during maoist's civil war. India had said that it was “concerned” over “lack of political progress” and incidents of “violence, extra-judicial killings and ethnic discrimination” in Nepal.

2015 Nov 5:  Nepal and China has made an agreement to open 7 new border points and 2 dry ports. 2 border points Tatopani and Rasuwagadhi are already in use. The new 7 points are Olanchunggola (Taplejung), Kimanthaka (Sankhuwasabha),  Lamabagar (Dolakha), Larke (Gorkha), Mugu district and Yari (Humla). Dry port in Larcha (Sindhuplanchowk) is under construction where as new one will be constructed in Timure (Rasuwa).

2015 Nov 6: PM KP Oli has said  the indian blockade of key border points is more inhuman than a war.  He further told a delegation of the Federation of Nepali Journalists (FNJ) that “Neighbouring country is bullying us on one hand and raising issues of impunity on the other”

The  largest Indian communist party CPI (Marxist) has criticized the behavior of Indian government to Nepal. They have said that PM Modi and BJP government did that purposefully looking the benefit of party in Bihar election.


2015 Nov 7: Protesting Madhesi front has decided to participate and disrupt the parliament from Now on. Except from the voting in the PM election they have been avoiding the parliament since last three months and protesting in Madhesh region of Nepal. Main opposition and largest party in parliament Nepali Congress is also considering the option of disrupting the parliament.

Deputy PM of Nepal CP Mainali has claimed that "India want to divide Nepal and merge Madhesh region into India". Indian embassy to Nepal has criticized this statement.

The leading Nepali online news www.onlinekhabar.com said "Indian Home minister Rajnath Singh is against the blockade and want to have good and friendly relation with Nepal. Indian PM is also worried about the situation. But the Indian bureaucracy is totally against Nepal. Indian Foreign secretory S. Jayasankar, Nepal desk chief Avay Thakur are against the political approach of good relationship. They are followed by Indian ambassador to Nepal Ranjti Roy. Collectively Jayasankar, Thakur and Roy are forcing leaders not to normalize the situation with Nepal.

2015 Nov 9: Madheshi front rejected the official dialogue fixed for today between the front and the government. The wanted Nepal government to apologize first in the incident of Nov 2 when a Indian national was died during the protest.

2015 Nov 10: United Nations has requested all concerned parties to remove the blockade in Indo-Nepal border as a landlocked country Nepal has fundamental right to get free access to the sea. Stephane Dujarric, spokesman of UN secretory general Ban Ki Moon said "The Secretary-General indeed reiterates his concern over the obstruction of essential supplies on the Nepal-India border. Acute shortages in fuel supplies continue to impede planned deliveries to earthquake-affected villages in Nepal"

2015 Nov 11: UN Secretory general Ban Ki Moon has expressed his sorrow about the blockade in the Indo-Nepal border. He said this in the meeting with former PM Sushil Koirala in New York.

2015 Nov 12: Nepalis in London has protested against the visiting Indian PM Narendra Modi. Modi and UK Prime minister David Cameroon had issued a joint press release earlier today indirectly implying that UK has support on the Indian stand in Nepal issue.

2015 Nov 15Parties in the Government have formed a new dialogue committee led by UCPN Maoist president Prachanda to make talks with protesting Madheshi front. Other members are Ex PM Jhalnath Khanal from UML and deputy PM Kamal Thapa from RPP.

China has proposed to send gas bullet directly inside Nepal. Nepali ambassador to China Dr. Mahesh Maskey said "China wants to open common check post in Panchkhal, Kabhre". Nepal needs 15 lakhs cylinders of LPG every month. One bullet truck contains 1250 cylinders of LPG gas. 40 bullet trucks per day would be sufficient to fuel Nepal's kitchen.

Nepal government has started selling subsidized woods to public amid fuel crisis. 41,000 kg wood was sold in Kathmandu in the first day.

2015 Nov 17: Minister for Commerce and supply Ganesman Pun has arrived Beijing and requested Chinese leaders to provide gas to Nepal in subsidized price in current crisis. Minister Pun also has request letter from PM Oli. China has agreed to give oil without tax and service fee.

Nepalis protested against the blockade in front of United Nations headquarters in New York. The protest was organized by NRNA USA.

2015 Nov 18: Dialogue between top leaders of big parties in the government and Madheshi front today ended without positive conclusion. Prachanda, Narayankaji Shrestha from Maoist, Jhalnath Khanal and Agni Kharel from UML and RPP leader Kamal thapa were involved from the government side whereas Upendra Yadav, Mahanta Thakur, Mahendra yadav etc were involved form the front. Largest party in the parliament Nepali congress did not show up in the dialogue. 

Prachandra was actively participating before this talk and had said it is going to be decisive. He had presented a new proposal earlier as removing hill districts from state-5 and morang and sunsari districts be finalized by federal commission. But Congress and UML did not support that.

2015 Nov 19: Madheshi front has decided to let School and Colleges open in the morning time and let medicine enter into Nepal through Biratnagar-Jogbani border point during the agitation.

Bangladesh is said to be ready to sell petroleum product to Nepal except the natural gas. Nepal oil corporation  (NOC) and Bangladesh petroleum corporation (BPC) had discussion today in Dhaka. NOC said they are starting homework for MOU and commerce agreement soon.

2015 Nov 20: Nepalis protested in 5 cities of Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Darbin and Adilade) against the Indian blockade.  Also protested in front of Indian consulate in Hong kong.

People protested in Biratnagar in favor of undivided Jhapa-Morang-Sunsari. These three districts are the main reason behind ongoing Madhesh agitation. Madheshi parties want these three districts to be given to the newly declared state-2. Protesting since last 3 days "Undivided supporting" protesters do not want to join state-2 as a whole or even partly.

2015 Nov 21:  2 Killed and 17 injured in the Madheshi protest in Saptari district Saturday night. Biren Ram (15) and Nageshwor Yadav (30) were killed when police fired to clear the East-west Highway.

2015 Nov 22: Former PM and former Maoist leader Dr. Baburam Bhattarai started a 2 day conference in Kathmandu for 'the formation of a new power'. Leaders of agitating Madheshi front Upendra Yadav and Mahantha Thakur also took part to show the support of Madhehsi front. Pradip Giri from Congress, Tharuhat leader Gopal dahit, Padmaratna Tuladhar and Khagendra Sangarula also participated.

1 Madheshi protester named Dilip Shah killed in Police firing during the protest Saptari district. Agitators had demonstrated violating the curfew in Sunday morning. The had burnt down a police bit in Rupani and a van of the police chief of the saptari district.

2015 Nov 23: 100 days of the Madheshi agitation.

2015 Nov 24: Dr. Baburam Bhattarai declared 11 membered co-ordination committee for 'the new power'. Central co-ordinator is himself and international co-ordinator is his wife Hisila Yami.

Indian ambassador to Nepal Ranjit Roy has said the amendment of the constitution is the only way to resolve the issue. Maoist leader Prachanda and Madheshi front leaders has meeting today in Kathmandu.

Locals in Fuljor, Sarlahi have resisted the Highway blockade program by Madheshi front. Chure Bhawar National Unity Party led the people. Sarlahi district is in the heart of Madhesh region.


2015 Nov 27 Fri: Local people have resisted the protesting program of Madheshi front in Itahari. They burnt down the main stage. Top leaders like Mahantha Thakur, Upendra Yadav and Rajendra Mahato had to cancel their program.

BJP leader Bijaya Joli arrived in Kathmandu. He met with the PM, president, leader of opposition and Madheshi leaders and expressed Indian concern about burning of Indian PM's effigy in Nepal.

2015 Nov 30: Three side dialogue held in PM's residence today between the Government, Main opposition Congress and the agitating Madheshi front. Another talks will be after 2 days.

2015 Dec 2: Foreign minister Kamal Thapa has met Indian foreign minister Susma Swaraj today. Thapa is in 3 days visit to India.

Scheduled talk for today between the government and the Madheshi front has been postponed. Leaders of Madheshi front did not show up in the talks.

Madheshi fornt and Chure Vawar Party has confronted in Nawalpur, Sarlahi district today. Police had to fire in sky to control the situation. Front has postponed their program.

A private company has brought the oil in Nepal for the first time. Petrolimex bought 42,000 aviation fuel through air today.

2015 Dec 3: Indian parliament has discussed about Nepal issue. Indian foreign minister Sushma Swaraj proposed to send a all-party delegation to Nepal.

Nepali people has demonstrated in San Francisco and Delhi against the Indian blockade. Similar protest are being organized in different cities of the world by Nepali diaspora. 


Indian ambassador Ranjit Roy has given lunch to some members of parliament today. Amresh Kumar Singh, Anand Prasad Dhungana, Tejulal Chaudhari from Congress, Surendra Pandey from UML, Raibindrapratap Shah from Maoist and Dilnath Giri from RPP Nepal etc attended the lunch.


Main opposition Congress has obsectred the parliament today evening in favor of "constitution amendment bill"


2015 Dec 4: Madheshi leaders did not attend the scheduled dialogue with the major parties today. They instead went to Indian embassy in Kathmandu and met with the ambassador Ranjit Roy. Indian government has called top leaders of Madheshi front to Delhi for consultation.

Nepal government has requested Bangladesh Government to make the talk about 'oil purchase' in the government level.

2015 Dec 5: Major parties and the Madhehsi front had "informal dialogue" today. Front rejected the 3 point proposal presented by PM Oli. Only two major madheshi leaders Updendra Yadav and Mahanta Thakur attended the meeting. Other two major madheshi leaders Rajendra Mahto and Marendra Raya Yadav have already went to India for tomorrow meeting.

2015 Dec 6: Madheshi leaders have dinner meeting with Indian foreign minister Sushma Swaraj today. Before this Madheshi leaders also met JDU president Sharad Yadav, Indian Congress leader Karan Singh and Nationalist Congress general secretory DP Tripathi in Delhi today. JDU has strong presence in Bihar as JDU leader Nitish Kumar is current chief minister of Bihar State wheres Nationalist congress party has good presence in Maharashtra state.

2015 Dec 7: Indian upper house 'Rajya Sabha' has discussed about Nepal. 14 MPs talked. MP Mani Shankar Aiyar said India should stop its bullying in Nepal and open the border. He further said the constitution is adopted by overwhelming majority not only from constituent assembly as a whole but also from members from terai region. Current agitation is not endorsed by majority of terai people. DP Tripathi said its not only a political crisis but also humanitarian crisis the Indian government has caused in Nepal and they should open the border asap. Karan Singh said it was bad policy to approach Nepal after they passed constitution in the CA. Foreign minister Sushma Swaraj answered this is saying this was not the first border-closure but there was a closure in time of Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. India had never accepted border closure of Rajiv Gandhi time before. 

2015 Dec 10: Government, main opposition congress and two leaders from Madheshi front had 3-side dialogue today. Madhehsi front agreed to let government pass "post-earthquake re-construction bill" through the parliament. But the Government and the front kept on with their respective 3-point and 11-points proposals.

2015 Dec 11: Government and the madheshi front had brief dialogue today. The main opposition Nepali Congress refused to attend the talks. Congress is now against the new amended bill which is agreed by the government and the madheshi front. Congress wants the consensus on the original amendment bill they submitted earlier. Amid this they had interrupted the parliament yesterday and did not let "post-earthquake re-construction bill" be discussed.

2015 Dec 13: 3-side dialogue today ended without conclusion. Main opposition Congress and Madheshi front did not agree over "constitution amendment bill". Congress and Madheshi front also had 2-side talks earlier today but that one also had ended without conclusion.


2015 Dec 15: "constitution amendment bill" supported by 3 major parties is submitted in the Parliament today without "some changes" demanded by madheshi front. 

2015 Dec 16: President Bidhya Bhandari paid her visit to Ramjanaki Mandir in Janakpur today. Janakpur is the heart of the region where Madheshi parties are agitating since several months. People protested outside the temple today too and 12 police are said to be wounded.

"Post-earthquake re-construction bill" is passed from the parliament today. Both Madheshi front and opposition Nepali congress supported the bill. Nepal had suffered earthquake of 7.8 magnitude about 8 months ago leaving more that 8,000 dead.

2015 Dec 18 Fri (Push 3): After being failed to have fruitful dialogue to the government Madheshi Front has now announced 11-day protest program.
Sadbhawana Party, one among 4 parties in Madheshi front, has started their own single-party agitation in Madhesh region. But very few number of people have joined their protest.


2015 Dec 19 Sat (Push 4): Action of the Madheshi front against widow women is widely criticized in Nepal. Front had cleaned the Janaki Temple in Janakpur after President's visit considering her "impure" to enter Hindu temple as she is a widow.

2015 Dec 20 Sun (Push 5): 1 protester named Shesh Tabrej Alam (15) killed during Madheshi protest in Gaur, Rautahat today. Police said they had to fire bullets in self defense because protesters threw stones and "petrol bombs" targeting Police. District administration has imposed indefinite curfew after 4 pm to control the situation.

Government has passed 3-points proposal to address madhesh protest and given to Madheshi front in written. But the front has said the proposal will not solve the problem completely.

2015 Dec 21: India welcomed the 3-point proposal by the government. Indian foreign ministry issued an statement and said "Indian government welcomes this positive development"

Leaders of Madheshi front have met Indian ambassador to Nepal in Kathmandu. India is (said to be) trying to convince madheshi front on the 3-point proposal of the Nepal government. Madhehsi front also met government's dialogue team after meeting with the ambassador.

Madhehsis have protested in Gaur, Rauthahat all day breaking the curfew today. Protesters attacked Bankul, Katahariya & Ganga Pipra police stations and also burn some parts of them.

2015 Dec 22: Main opposition Nepali congress and agitating Madheshi front is said to have come near to the conclusion. These parties have been in dialogue since some days.

2015 Dec 25: Nepal and China had 8-point agreement for long term trade of Petroleum & Gasoline products. Nepali vice PM and foreign minister Kamal Thapa and Chinese foreign minister Wang Yi had made this agreement in Beijing today.

2015 Dec 26: Congress, Maoist and Madheshi front had talk today in Katmandu in the residence of Congress president Sushil Koirala. They failed to reach on a concrete conclusion.

Rajendra Mahato has been wounded during the protest in Biratnagar Indo-Nepal border. Sadbhawana Party president Mahto and some other protesters has come from Indian side to block the border. They also threw the stones from Indian side. Nepal police and Indian SSB then cleared their side of border. Comparatively there is less number of madheshi population in Biratnagar area.


2015 Dec 29: Vice PM & Foreign minister Kamal Thapa returned Nepal after 5 days visit to China. China has announced to donate oil of value 13 million yuan to Nepal. Its about 1.5 million usd; the same amount of oil was donated by China in Oct also.

2016 Jan 1: Rajendra Mahato has gone to Delhi for further treatment. Before this he was transferred to BPKIH Dharan. Doctors in hospital in Biratnagar said Mahato was already discharged after normal treatment as he was not seriously hurt. But Mahato refused to get discharged and transferred himself to BPKIH as he know the chief of BPKIH hospital very well.

Nepali throughout the glove celebrated Nepali topi day wearing Dhaka Topi and Bhadgaule Topi.

2016 Jan 3: Major three parties have formed 3-member task force to deal with madheshi front.
Mahesh acharya, Bhim Rawal and Krishna Bahadur Mahara are the members. They want to add one member from Madheshi front.


2016 Jan 5: Madheshi front has formed a new 3-member task-force (कार्यदल) to talk with government. Hridayesh Tripathi from TMLP, Rajendra Shrestha from Forum and Ramnaresh Raya from TMSP are the member. Sadbhawana party has no member in task force but they are said to be fully supportive to the task force.

2016 Jan 16: Major 3 parties has submitted a new 5-point proposal to Madheshi front to resolve Madheshi issue. It has proposed to form a new political mechanism which will decide about state-demarcation within 3 months. Sadbhawana party has returned to the dialogue. They had said they will not come to dialogue until the government apologize for Dec-26 incident to its leader Rajendra Mahato.

2016 Jan 17: Madheshi front has replied their 6-point proposal adding a point in yesterday's 5 point proposal. They want only 2 provinces in terai region. Conclusion is said to be coming soon. One major Madheshi leader Rajendra Mahato has also returned from India.

2016 Jan 18: Dialogue between taskforces ended without conclusion. Madheshi fornt has decided to disband their task force and make further dialogue only by the top leaders.

2016 Jan 20: Government also decided to talk with madheshi front by top leaders not by task force.

2016 Jan 21: 3 killed in Madheshi protest in Morang district today. Madheshi front was protesting against CPN-UML program in Rangeli. RPP Nepal activist Draupatidevi Chaudhari  (58) killed in Rangeli whereas Chibu Majhi (18) and Mahadev Risidev killed in Dianiya in the following protest. Front has burnt down the Daiaiya police station. Curfew is enforced in the Rangeli area. Youthforce member Manoj Singh is also attacked and wounded by the front.

2016 Jan 23: Parliament passed first constitution amendment bill by 2/3 majority. 461 members voted Yes, 7 voted No and Neutral option got 0 vote. Main opposition Nepali Congress and parties in government like UML, Maoist, MJF Democratic etc voted in favor. This amendment satisfies partial demand of Madheshi front. But Madheshi parties protested against the bill in the parliament.

2016 Jan 24: Baburam Bhattarai has announced 35 members interim central council of his future new party. Many PhD schoolars, ex administrators of Nepal government, high ranking ex security officers.

India has welcomed the first amendment of new Nepali Constitution. Indian foreign ministry issued an statement today.

2016 Jan 27: United Nations has welcomed the first constitution amendment of Nepal. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's spokesperson Stephane Dujarric said "moon has expressed hope that the development would be an important step in resolving differences on constitutional arrangements”.

2016 Jan: after worldwide protest of Nepali people against Indian blockade, several phases of gov-madheshi front talk and minor amendment in the constitution in 2016 Jan 23 Indian blockade started to got loose.

2016 Feb 5: Local residents and Indian business owners have cleared the border blockade done by Madheshi front. They burnt down the tent of protesters and removed the barriers.

2016 Feb 6: Madheshi front of Bara and Persha districts have decided to continue the blockade in major check post Birjung. But the border has normal flow now. There are many checkpoints in 1800 km long Indo-Nepal border but this point accounts majority of total transaction.

2016 Feb 8: Madheshi front has "officially" decided to take back its "border point blockade" program. They had started blockade about 4 and half months ago in Sep 24, 2015 (Ashoj 7). Three days ago local residents and small business owners across the border had burnt down the tents and removed all barriers made by protesters. Prime minister Oli has welcomed the decision. Front has said to continue other type of protests. Front has also decided to alert its one top leader Rajendra Mahato not to work against the goal of agitation.

2016 Feb 8: Madheshi front officially took back the blockade program which was already lifted. As India never acknowledged the blockage they did not announce the lift as well.



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2015/2016 Madhesh/ Tharuhat agitation deaths: 

2015 Aug 28: 8 police, 3 protesters, 1 child Kailali
2015 Sep 5 : 5 protesters Bara & Parsa
2015 Sep 9: 5 protesters Mahottari & Janakpur
2015 Sep 11: 5 protesters Janakpur & Jaleshwor, 1 Police Mahottari
2015 Sep 15: 4 protesters Rupendehi
2015 Nov 2: 1 protester (Indian citizen) Birgunj
2015 Nov 21: 2 protesters Saptari
2015 Nov 22: 1 protester Saptari
2015 Dec 20: 1 protester Gaur
2016 Jan 21: 3 protesters Morang

2016 Aug 18: Government declared martyr to 41 agitators and 11 security forces who were killed in 2015/16 Madhesh agitation as per the demand of Madheshi front. The front had submitted the name of total 68 dead people for martyr recognition (including one who committed suicide). Government said they are investigating about the rest. Family of each martyr will get Rs. 10 lakhs. (li)

Madheshi parties during  2015/2016 agitation

United Democratic Madheshi Front -the main organizer
- Sanghiya Samajbadi Forum led by Upendra Yadav (15)
- Terai Madhesh Loktantrik Party led by Mahanta Thakur (11)
- Sadbhawana Party led by Rajendra Mahato (6)
- Terai Madhesh Sadbhawana Party led by Mahendra Raya Yadav (3)

Other madheshi parties: 
- Rastriya Madhesh Samajwadi Party led by Sarat Singh Bhandari (3)
- MJF-Loktantrik led by Bijaya Kumar Gachhadar (14)
- MJF-Ganatantrik led by Raj Kishor Yadav (1)
- Sanghiya Sadbhawana Party (1)
- Madhesh Samata Party (1)
- Nepal Sadbhawana Party-2015 led by Anil Kumar Jha and Sarita Giri (0)
- Tarai Madhes Abhiyan led by Jaya Prakash Gupta


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2016 Feb 10: President of the largest party in parliament Nepali Congress and former PM Shushil Koirala died in early morning in Kathmandu. The new Constitution was promulgated during his primership in last September.

2016 Feb 11: Three new madhesh based political parties are added in the existing "Madheshi front". New members are Rastriya Madhesh Samajbadi Party (RMSP) led by Sharadshingh Bhandari, Forum-republic (MJF-R) led by Rajkishore Yadav and Nepal Sadbhawana Party led by Anil Jha. RMSP and MJF-R respectively have 3 and 1 members in the 601 membered parliament. After the addition there are total 7 member parties including previous 4 in the front. Terai Madhsh Rastriya Abhiyan led by JP Gupta was rejected in the front as it neither has any members in the parliament nor any reliable party structure.

2016 Feb 18: Government formed 11-membered "political committee" on its own to give consultation on "amendment of state's boundaries". Coordinator of the committee is vice-PM Kamal thapa but rest of members are yet to be finalized.  Government and Madheshi front had several meetings in last two days for this committee but they had failed to reach any agreement.

2016 Feb 19: PM Oli has visited India for the first time after several months bitter relationship with India. Indian foreign minister Sushma Swaraj welcomed the team in the airport in New Delhi. Visiting team has 46 members including Vice-PM and foreign minister Kamal Thapa, Finance minister Bishnu Paudel and Home minister Shakti Basnet.

2016 Feb 20: PM Kp oli has met Indian PM Narendra Modi in Delhi today. They signed the 7 point agreement.

2016 Mar 20: PM KP Oli arrived Beijing for 8 days China visit. He is scheduled to meet Chinese President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang.

2016 Mar 31: Nepal criticized the relevant points in the yesterday's joint statement of EU-India which had urged for the "need for inclusive constitutional settlement" in Nepal. External affair ministry of Nepal said "The Constitution making and its promulgation are essentially internal matters of a country and EU-India Joint Statement not only hurts the sentiments of the people of Nepal but also defies the fundamental principle of non-interference of the U.N. Charter and norms of international law". India was able to issue somehow similar joint statement with UK in Nov 12, 2015. Some Nepali people now see 'India as the threat for peace, stability and constitution in Nepal(link)'.

Sanghiya Gathbandhan (Federal Alliance) - 2016/2017

2016 Apr 22 Fri: "Federal Front" of 27 political parties including Madheshi parties have announced the new agitation from Apr 27 (Baisakh 15) against the government. First phase of the agitation will be between Baisakh 15 to Jeth 1.

2016 Apr 29 : 29 members including 4 central committee members and many dhanusha district leaders of the largest madheshi party in the government 'Madheshi Janadhikar Forum - Loktantrik' have left the party. Few days ago, the party had decided to remove the word 'madheshi janadhikar' from its name to give party 'national level' status since their first convention in coming May 2-4.

2016 May 8: Nepal government has sent a formal invitation to the United Democratic Madhesi Front to resolve the differences through talks. 8 months protest in southern plains of Nepal had ended without conclusion before 3 months.

2016 May 14: Madheshi Front formed Federal alliance/Santhiya Gathabandhan (alliance of 29 madheshi and janajati parties) and started capital-centric agitation. In May 19, 2016  3 parties (Lok Dal led by Kaushalkumar Singh, Bahujan Samaj Party led by Ganga Mahara and Loktantrik Party, Nepal) left Sanghiya gadhabandhan saying capital-centric agitation was started without discussion. In 2016 June 7 Sanghiya Gathabandhan started huger strike. In 2016 June 12 Government sent letter to Gathabandhan for talk. Government declared martyr to 41 agitators and 11 security forces in Aug 18, 2016. Federal alliance agitation slowed down.

2016 May 15 Sun: Sanghiya Gathabandhan - Federal alliance has protested in Kathmandu picketing the main government complex in Nepal Singha durbar.They have decided to continue the protest monday and tuesday.

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2016 Aug 4: CPNM leader Prachanda became Prime Minister of Nepal leading the coalition of  CPNMC, Nepali Congress, NL Forum, RPP etc.

2016 Aug 18: Government declared martyr to 41 agitators and 11 security forces who were killed in 2015/16 Madhesh agitation as per the demand of Madheshi front. The front had prescribed the name of total 68 dead people for martyr recognition (including one who committed suicide). Government said they are investigating about the rest. Family of each martyr will get Rs. 10 lakhs.

2017 Feb 25: Government decided to have local election in 2017 may 14 but Federal Alliance said it will boycott the election. But SSFN led by Upendra Yadav decided to participate in the local election. In 2017 May 6 Sanghiya Gadhabandhan meeting kicked out SS Forum led by Upendra Yadav from the gathabandhan.

2017 Mar 6: 3 madheshi protesters killed in Rajbiraj while trying to storm a public rally organized by the main opposition CPNUML.

Developments before the 2017 Elections


* As the new constitution provisioned at least 3% vote required to get a federal proportional seat & 1.5% vote required to get a state proportional seat, many smaller parties had to be merged into each other or dissolved into large parties.

2017 Apr 5: Nepal Loktantrik Forum (NLF): Bijay Kumar Gachhadar-led Madhesi Janadhikar Forum (Loktantrik), Rastriya Janamukti (Loktantrik) and Dalit Janajati Party announced their unification to form Nepal Loktantri Forum. These parties had 16 , 2 and 1 seats respectively in the parliament. (http://bit.ly/2nWR7ZD). In 2017 May 8, Gachhadar sworn in as Deputy Prime Minister in the Prachanda government.  In 2017 June 7: Deuba sworn in as PM, Gachhadar continued as his Deputy PM. In 2017 Oct 17, Gachhadar merged his party "Nepal Loktantrik Forum" into Nepali Congress.


2017 Apr 11: Government registered a new proposal in parliament to amend the constitution. This proposal will also amend article 87 restricting chief and vice chiefs of cities and villages to vote to elect national assembly members. This was one of the demand of Madheshi morcha. This proposal also amends article 287 giving federal parliament sole right to amend existing state borders in absence of state parliament.

2017 Apr 20: Rastriya Janata Party, Nepal (RJPN)- Six madhesh based parties merged into each other to form a united Madhesh based party. The six parties were Mahantha Thakur-led Tarai Madhes Loktantrik Party, Rajendra Mahato-led Sadbhawana Party, Sharat Singh Bhandari-led Rastriya Madhes Samajbadi Party, Mahendra Yadav-led Tarai Madhes Sadbhawana Party, Rajkishor Yadav-led Madhesi Janadhikar Forum- Ganatantrik and Anil Jha-led Nepal Sadbhawana Party. (http://bit.ly/2oNC3Qi). 

2017 Local Elections
2017 Nov 26 & Dec 7: Legislative and State assembly election held in Dec 7 in State-2. SSFN and RJPN jointly contested the election and got 29 and 24 seats respectively out of total 107 seats of State-2 assembly. UML and CPNM also jointly contested and got 21 and 13 seats and Nepali Congress got 19 seats.


2017 May 14 Local Elections 1st Phase: SSFN contested in the first phase of the local election jointly with Naya Shakti party led by former PM Baburam Bhattarai also Nepal Loktantrik Forum led by Bijaya K Gachhadar participated in these elections. RJPN rejected the these elections.


2017 June 7: NC leader Sher B Deuba became Prime Minister of Nepal leading the collation of NC,  CPNMC, NL Forum, RPP etc. Prachanda govt conducted 1st phase of local election.

2017 June 28 Local Elections 2nd Phase: SSFN contested in the second phase of the local election jointly with Naya Shakti party led by former PM Baburam Bhattarai also Nepal Loktantrik Forum led by Bijaya K Gachhadar participated in these elections. RJPN rejected the these elections.

2017 Aug 21: Constitution amendment bill failed in the Legislative Parliament. Two third or 395 votes required among current total 592 members. 347 (58.6%) voted YES, 206 voted NO and 39 were absent. CPN UML voted against.

2017 Sep 18 Local Elections 3rd Phase: All key Madhesh based parties at the time (SSFN, RJPN & NLF) participated the 3rd phase of local elections held in State-2.

* Among total 753 local levels, 3 major parties UML, NC & Maoist won 292, 274 and 107 local chiefs respectively leaving Madhesh based parties far behind. SSFN, RJPN and NLF got 30, 26 and 9 only aggregating in all 3 phases of the election.

2017 Oct 2: 5 key leaders of RJPN from State-5 including member of party president-council Hridayesh Tripathi decided to run coming state & federal election using the election symbol "sun" of CPN UML. Other leaders are Brijesh Kumar Gupta, Pashupatidayal Mishra, Ishwordayal Mishra & Jagdish Shukla. All top leaders from RJP are now remained from State-2. RJP had rejected local election in other states except state-2.

2017 Federal & Provincial Elections  

2017 Nov 26 & Dec 7: 2 phases of Federal and Provincial election. CPN UML and CPN MC jointly contested the election whereas Madhesh based parties SSFN and RJPN also jointly contested the elections within State 2. 

Federal Parliament | Total seats 275 | Majority 138
Left: CPNUML 121 seats (33.25% popular votes) + CPN MC 53 seats (13.66%)= 174 seats
Main opposition: NC 63 seats  (32.78%)
Other : RJPN 17 seats (4.95%), SSFN 16 seats (4.93%), Independents 5 (one each from 4 smaller parties -RPP, NSP, RJN, NWPP & 1 independent candidate)

Provincial Assemblies | 7 Provinces |
CPNUML and CPNMC jointly got majority seats in assemblies of Province no 1,3,4,5,6, & 7. RJPN and SSFN jointly got majority seats in assembly of Province no 2. SSFN also won 3 seats in State-1 & 5 seats in State-5 assemblies. Similarly RJPN won 2 seats in State-7 and 1 seat in State-5 assemblies.

2018 First Provincial Assembly & Provincial government of State 2

2018 Jan 21: all state assembly members took oath in their respective states.
2018 Feb 4: State 2 assembly had its first meeting.
2018 Feb 14: Saroj Kumar Yadav (RJPN) elected uncontested as the Speaker of State 2 assembly.
2018 Feb: Md. Lalbabu Raut Gaddi (SSFN) became the chief minister of State 2.(li)
2018 Feb 20: talks between State 2 Government and agitators demanding city of Birgunj to be capital city of state 2 ended without conclusion.(li) As central Deuba govt declared temporary capital of all 7 states (including Janakpur in State 2) in 2018 Jan 17, protests arose Birgunj and other cities.(li)
2018 Feb 24: State 2 Chief Minister Raut wrote letter to central government not to be unhelpful in state matters. (link)
2018 May 10: Indian PM Narendra Modi visited State-2 capital Janakpur during his visit to Nepal.
2018 Jun 1: SSFN joined central govt. Its president Upendra Yadav became deputy PM of Nepal.
2018 Aug 18: PM KP Oli addressed the State-2 provincial assembly.
2018 Dec: CM of Indian State Uttarakhand Yogi Adityanath visited Janakpur on the occasion of annual Vivah panchami function.



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Timelines of various Madhesh based parties 

Timeline of Sadhbawana Party (1985-2017) (also NSP-A, SP etc)
1985: Nepal Sadbhawana Party was established by Gajendra Narayan Singh
2001 July: NSP restructured, Gajendra Narayan (President), Badri Mandal (VP), Hrideyesh Tripathi (VP), Rajendra Mahto (Gen Secretory), Sarita Giri (Spokesperson).
2002 Jan 23: Gajendra Narayan Singh died. Badri Prasad Mandal appointed as the acting chairman.
2003 Mar: In the 4th convention NSP split. New party formed as Nepal Sadbhawana Party (Anandidevi) led by Anandidevi Singh (widow of late Gajendra Narayan), Hridayesh Tripathi etc.
2007 Early: Badri Mandal expelled from the NSP. Laxman Lal Karn became the new president.
2007 June: NSP merged with NSP (Anandidevi).
2007 Sep: new NSP (Anandidevi) split.  Rajendra Mahato and Laxman Lal Karna formed their own NSP (Anandidevi) without Anandidevi Singh but later renamed as Sadbhawana Party.
2008 Feb: NSP(a) broke again. Khushi Lal Mandal registered new NSP (Anandidevi) with election commission. The original NSP (Anandidevi) remained with Anandidevi and Shyam Sundar Gupta.
2008 Apr : First CA election
2008 Aug: Anandidevi Singh was expelled from NSP (Anandidevi). Shyam Sundar Gupta became new acting president.
2011: Anil Kumar Jha split from NSP to establish "Sanghiya Sadbhawana Party - 2011".
2013 Nov 13: Second CA Election
2015: a fraction of Sadbhawana Party led by Sarita Giri and Sanghiya Sadbhawana party led by Anil Jha merged together to form the new "Nepal Sadbhawana Party (established 2015)" which claims its root back to original Sadbhawana party.
2017 Apr 20: 6 madhesh based parties including Sadbhawana Party led by Rajendra Mahato, Nepal Sadbhawana Party (es. 2015) led by Anil Jha merged to form Rastriya Janata Party, Nepal.


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Timeline of Madheshi Janadhikar Forum (2007-2015 SSF - present)
Key early leaders: Upendra Yadav, Bijaya K Gachhadar (NC > MJF-Lok > NC), Sharad Singh Bhandari (NC > this > National Madhes Socialist Party), Raj Kishor Yadav (MJF-Ganatantrik), Jaya Prakash Gupta (Tarai Madhes Abhiyan), Jitendra Sonal (this > MJF-Madhesh > TMLP),  Bhagyanath Gupta, Kishor Kumar Bishwash, Ram Kumar Sharma etc

2007 Jan 16: MJF started agitation with Madhesh band (general strike)
2007 Mar 21: Gaur carnage between MJF and Maoist's Madheshi Rastriya Mukti Morcha, 27 killed
2007 Aug: MJF-Nepal made 22-points deal with the government.
2007 Sep-dec. Bhagyanath Gupta, Kishor Kumar Bishwash, Ram Kumar Sharma and Jitendra Sonal expelled from the original MJF and founded their own MJF-Madhesh.
2008 Feb 28: United Democratic Madheshi Front (MJF, TMLP & Sadbhawana) made 8-point deal with government and stopped second madheshi agitation.
2008 March: Bijaya Kumar Gachhadar expelled from Nepali Congress and joined MJF.
2008 Apr: First CA election
2008 Aug 22: MJF entered the Parchanda government. Updendra Yadav became foreign minister.
2009 June: Bijaya Kumar Gachhadar split from MJF-Nepal to from future MJF-Loktantrik.
2012 June: Sharat Singh Bhandari expelled from MJF-Loktantrik. He later founded Rastriya Madhesh Samajwadi Party (June 27).
2013 Nov 13: Second CA Election
2015 Jun: MJF-N led by Upndra Yadav, the Federal Socialist Party Nepal (FSPN) and the Khas Samabeshi Party merged to form Sanghiya Samajbadi Forum (SSF). It became national party in the 2017 parliament and led Province government in State no 2.


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Timeline of Terai Madhesh Loktanrik Party (2007-2017)
2007 Dec: Mahanta Thakur (from NC), Hridayesh Tripathi (from NSP), Sarbendra Nath Sukla (from RPP), Ramchandra Kushwaha (from NC), Mahendra Raya Yadav (from CPN-UML) etc founded Terai Madhesh Loktantrik Party (TMLP).
2008 Apr : First CA election
2010 Dec: party split. A new party Terai Madhesh Sadbhawana Party (TMSP) founded by Mahendra Raya Yadav.
2013 Nov 13: Second CA Election
2017 Apr 20: 6 madhesh based parties including TMLP and TMSP merged to form Rastriya Janata Party, Nepal.


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Madheshi Separatist movements/ terrorist organizations banned in Nepal

* Alliance for Independent Madhesh (IIM) / Swatantra Madhesh Gathabandhan: Dr CK Raut
* Janatantrik Terai Mukti Morcha (JTMM): Jay Krishna Goit
* JTMM-Jwala Singh: Jwala Singh


External links

http://ratopati.com/story/75479

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