List of Aadibasi Janajati Surnames

Aadibashi-Janajati is the umbrella term used to identify the ethnic indigenous people of Nepal. According to 2011 Census 35.81% (9.5 million) people are identified as Janajati. Among 125 listed caste and ethnic groups in the census, 63 are classified as Janajati among which Tharu, Magar, Gurung, Tamang, Newar, Sherpa, Limbu, Rai and Thakali ethnicity are highly visible in the society.

Inclusion of Newar ethnic group in the Janajati list has been controversial. Whereas some other ethnic organizations are demanding to include Khas people (Bahun, Chhettri, Thakuri, Dashnami and Dalit ethnic groups) in the list as well.

Among Janajati majority of Tharu, Newar, Magar & Tamang people believe in Hinduism; majority of Gurung, Sherpa and Thakali people believe in Buddhism whereas majority of Rai and Limbu people follow 'Kirat Mundhum' which used to be counted as Hinduism before 2001 census. 

Janajati from West Nepal (State 4,5,6 &7):-
  1. Magar surnames (1.9 million, 7.1%) Rana, Ale, Thapa, Shrish, Singjali, Rakhal, Gaha, Darlami, Budha(Buda), Gharti, Roka (Rokaya), Jhankri, Budhathoki, Garbuja, Khapangi, Suryabanshi, Raskoti, Bucha, Saru, Khamcha, Pulami, Rajali, Salami, Somai, Dhurel, Balal, Chhantyal, Sarangkoti,Masarangi, Charti, Naamjyali, Palli, Paharai, Damarpal, Pun
  2. Tharu (1.7 million, 6.6%)
  3. Gurung surnames (522,641) Gurung, Tamu
  4. Bhujel, Gharti, Khawas (118,650) (Thnahau, Gorkha, Nawalparasi, Chitwan)
  5. Ghale (26,000) (Gorkha, Lamjung, Manang districts)
  6. Darai (16,789) (Chitwan, Tanahu, Nawalparasi, Gorkha, Dhading etc) (mangolian)
  7. Thakali (13,215) (aka Tin Gaule) (Thak khola region, Mustang district) Sherchan/Serchan, Bhattachan, Gauchan, Tulachan, Lalchan, Hirachan, Jawarchan, Pannachan
  8. Mugali / Mugal (approx 10,000) (Mugu district) (not included in census 2011)
  9. Baram (8140) (aka Barhamu or Baramu) (Gorkha and Tanahun) (Close to Magar & Kirati)
  10. Dura (5,394) (Lamjung and Tanahun districts)
  11. Chhantyal (5,245) (Baglung, Mayagdi districts)
  12. Raji (4,235) (Bheri, Seti and Mahakali zones)
  13. Byasi/ Sauka (3985) (aka Byangsi/ Shauka) (Darchula district, Mahakali zone)
  14. Raute (618) (Karnali and Mahakali regions)
  15. Tangbe / Tangbedanis (approx 400) (Mustang) (not included in census 2011)
  16. Kusunda (273) (aka Ban raja, Mihaq) (Gandaki zone)
Janajati from Central Hills (State 3 & 1):-
  1. Tamang Surnames (1.5 million 5.8%) Tamang, Lama, Moktan, Yonzon, Pakhrin, Ghale, Murmi etc.
  2. Newar Surnames (1.3 million, 5.2%) Rajopadhyaya, Bhatta, Jha, Vajracharya, Bare, Shakya, Bhikshu, Gurju, Malla, Pradhan, Raj Bhandari, Joshi, Shrestha, Maske, Karmacharya, Tuladhar, Tamrakar, Kansakar, Awa, Sikarmi, Maharjan, Dangol, Duwal, Sapu, Kabhuja, Musa, Lawat, Awale, Awalay, Kumale, Prajapati, Manandhar, Khusa, Tandukar, Napit, Nakarmi, Karamjit, Bha, Bammala, Mali, Tepe, Citrakar, Putwar, Dali, Balami, Pulu, Ranjitkar, Kusle, Kasain, Khadgi, Shahi, Kulu, Pore, Deola, Chami, Camkhala, Halahulu Detail :List of Newar Castes
  3. Sherpa Surnames (112,946) Sherpa (Mingyak, Goparma, Lama etc)
  4. Chepang/ Praja (68,399) (Makwanpur district)
  5. Thami (28,671) (Dolakha districts)
  6. Bhote (13,397) Bhutiya
  7. Hyolmo/ Yolmo (10,752) (Helambu and Melamchi valley, close to sherpa tribe)
  8. Jirel (5,774) (Jiri valley, close to Sherpa and Sunuwar tribes)
Kirati Tribes (East hills) (State 1)
  1. Rai (620,004 - 2.3%) Bantawa, Chamling, Dumi, Dilpali, Jerung, Jero (Jerung), Kulung, Khaling, Lohorung, Mewahang, Puma, Rakhali,  Sampang, Shamsuhaang, Sotang, Sunuwar, Thulung, Tamla, Tilung, Wahaling, Wambule, Yakkha, Yamphu, Syangbo
  2. Limbu (387,300 - 1.5%) Limbu, Subba
  3. Sunuwar (55,712) (Kirati tribe - Okhaldhunga, Ramechhap and Dolakha districts)
  4. Kulung (28,613) (Kirati tribe - Similar to Rai)
  5. Yakkha/ Dewan (24,336) (Kirati tribe - lower Arun valley)
  6. Bahing (3,096) (Kirati tribe- Okhaldhunga, Solukhumbu districts)
  7. Hayu/ Wayu (2,925) (Kirat tribe)
Janajati of Tibetan influence (Far northern Nepal)
  1. Topkegola (1,523) (Taplejung district) 
  2. Walung (1,249) (Taplejung district)
  3. Thudam (unknown) (Taplejung district) (not included in census 2011)
  4. Lhomi (1,614) (Sankhuwasabha district)
  5. Bahra Gaule (approx 2,000) (Mustang) (not included in census 2011)
  6. Siyar (Chumba) (approx 1,000) (northern Gorkha district) (not included in census 2011)
  7. Larke (some 100s) (northern gorkha) (close to tibetian) (not included in census 2011)
  8. Dolpo (4107) (aka Dolpowa) (northern parts of Dolpa district) 
Kochila Region (State 1) (Jhapa and Morang districts)
  1. Rajbanshi (Koch) (115,242)
  2. Santhal (51,735)
  3. Dhimal (26,298)
  4. Tajpuriya (19,213)
  5. Gangai (18,603)
  6. Meche (bodo) (4,867)
  7. Kisan (1,739)
Other Janajatis
  1. Kumal / Kumhar (121,196) (Jhapa, Morang, Sankhuwasabha, Dolakha, Dhading, Chitwan etc)
  2. Danuwar Rai (84,115) (looks Mangolian, linguistically aryan) (eastern terai and hills)
  3. Majhi (83,727) (eastern and central terai and pahad)
  4. Bote - Majhi (5,019) (Chitwan, Tanahun)
  5. Dhanuk (219,808) (Saptari, Siraha and Dhanusha districts) (Madheshi)
  6. Jhangad / Dhagar (37,424) (Dhanusha districts) (Madheshi) (dravidian)
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According to Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities (NEFIN) the definition of Indigenous people is as follows:- (link)

* First settlers  prior to the formation of Gorkha and Nepal state.
* Dominated group and no representation in state organs
* Not included in the Hindu cast system.
* Own language, culture and religion different from the rulers.
* Listed by Nepalese Government Indigenous Act 2002.

Which Includes the following races

Kisan (किसान), Kumal (कुमाल), Gangai (गन्गाई), Gurung (गुरुङ), Chepang (चेपाङ), Chhantyal (छन्त्याल), Jirel (जिरेल), Jhangad (झांगड), Tajpuriya (ताजपुरिया), Tamang (तामाङ), Tangbe (ताङ्वे), Topkegola (तोक्पेगोला), Bhote (भोटे), Mugali (मुगाल), Larke (लार्के), Walung (वालुङ), Lhomi (ल्होमी)/ Shingsaba (शिंसावा), Sherpa (शेर्पा), Siyar (सियार), Hyolmo (ह्योल्मो), Thakali (थकाली - तिन गााउले ), Dolpo (डोल्पो), Thudam (थुदाम), Bahra Gaule (बाह्रागाउ), Lapcha (लाप्चा), Thakali (थकाली), Thami (थामी), Tharu (थारु), Danuwar (दनुवार), Darai (दराई), Dura (दुरा), Dhimal (धिमाल), Newar (नेवार), *Pahri (पहरी), Baram (बराम), Bote (बोटे), Bhujel (भुजेल), Magar (मगर), Majhi (माझी), Meche (मेचे), Yakhkha (याक्खा), Limbu (लिम्वु), Rai (राई), Rajbanshi (राजवंशी), Raji (राजी), Shauka (शौका), Santhal (सन्थाल), Sunuwar (सुनुवार), Hayu (हायू),  * Marfali (मार्फाली) - Thakali,  *Surel (सुरेल), Dhanuk (धानुक), Raute (राउटे), Kusunda (कुसुण्डा)

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See Also:-
Tags: aadiwashi, cast, आदिबासी, जनजाती, Janjati